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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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SYMPOSIUM - UVEITIS UPDATE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 225-238

Emergent infectious uveitis


Department of Ophthalmology, Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Monastir, Tunisiati, Tunisia

Correspondence Address:
Moncef Khairallah
Department of Ophthalmology, Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Monastir
Tunisia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-9233.58426

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Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.


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