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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 257-263

Prevalence and determinants of diabetic retinopathy in Al Hasa region of Saudi Arabia: primary health care centre based cross-sectional survey, 2007-2009


1 Community Ophthalmologist, Al Omran Primary Health Care Centre, Al Hasa, Saudi Arabia
2 Faculty University of Liverpool-Online, Miami, USA
3 Director, PHC Affairs, Health Directorate, Al Hasa, Saudi Arabia
4 King Fahad Higher Hospital, Al Hofuf Al Hasa, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Ataur Rahman Khan
Ophthalmologist, Omran Health Centre, Al Omran, Al Hasa 31982
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-9233.65502

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Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the urban and rural areas of Al Hasa region of Saudi Arabia and to determine risk factors related to DR. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on patient attending primary health care centers between July 2007 and June 2009. A retrospective chart review was conducted on subjects with diabetes mellitus greater than 18 years old. Ophthalmologists examined DR status through dilated pupils by using direct, indirect, and slit lamp bio-microscopy. Frequencies, percentage, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Odd's ratio was used to associate DR with possible risk factors. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of DR among 473 diabetic subjects was 30% (95% CI: 25.80-34.20). The odd ratios (ORs) of DR among diabetic residing in an urban area was significantly higher than diabetics residing in rural areas [OR = 1.94 (95% CI of OR 0.82-2.89)]. DR was associated to the duration of diabetes (adjusted OR = 1.70), uncontrolled blood sugar level (adjusted OR = 1.96), hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR = 2.04), and hypercholesterolemia (adjusted OR = 2.80). Conclusions: DR appears to be a public health problem in the Al Hasa district of Saudi Arabia, and a planned approach is required to avoid severe visual impairment in patients with diabetes mellitus. Primary prevention and early detection could be implemented through primary health centers and non-ophthalmologists.


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