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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 321-326

Diabetic retinopathy and its risk factors at the University Hospital in Jamaica

Department of Surgery, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica

Correspondence Address:
Lizette Mowatt
Department of Surgery, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-9233.120017

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Purpose: To determine the frequency of diabetic retinopathy and its risk factors in diabetic patients attending the eye clinic at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of diabetic outpatients attending the Eye Clinic at the UHWI. Data were collected on age, gender, type of diabetes mellitus (DM), type of diabetic retinopathy, other ocular diseases, visual acuity, blood glucose and blood pressure. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 19.0) was used for data analysis. Results: There were 104 patients (208 eyes) recruited for this study. There were 58.6% (61/104) females (mean age 53.6 ± 11.9 years) and 41.4% (43/104) males (mean age 61.7 ± 12.1 years). Type II DM was present in 68.3% (56% were females) of the patients and Type I DM was present in 31.7% (69.7% were females). Most patients (66%) were compliant with their diabetic medications. The mean blood glucose was 11.4 ± 5.3 mmol/L. Elevated blood pressure (>130/80) was present in 82.7% of patients. The mean visual acuity was 20/160 (logMAR 0.95 ± 1.1). The frequency of diabetic retinopathy was 78%; 29.5% had background retinopathy, and 50.5% of eyes had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) of which 34% had tractional retinal detachments. The odds ratio of developing PDR was 1.88 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.02-3.3) for Type I DM compared to 0.74 (95% CI: 0.55-0.99) for Type II DM. PDR was more prevalent in females (χ2 , P = 0.009) in both Type I and II DM. Conclusions: Jamaica has a high frequency of PDR which is more common in Type I diabetics and females. This was associated with poor glucose and blood pressure control.

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