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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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  Table of Contents 
CASE REPORT
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 268-270  

A surprise in the lacrimal sac


1 Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey
3 Department of Pathology, Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey
4 Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

Date of Web Publication12-Jul-2016

Correspondence Address:
Nilay Yuksel
Alacaatli Mah. Sinpas Inceklife, No: 2/5, Ankara
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-9233.180777

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   Abstract 

To present a case with recurrent dacryocystitis as an unusual complication of medial orbital wall fracture repair with cartilage tissue graft. A 20-year-old male had facial trauma and underwent surgery to reconstruct right medial orbital wall fracture. During follow-up, he presented with continuous epiphora, mucopurulent discharge from the right eye. A thorough history taking indicated that medial orbital fracture was reconstructed with postauricular cartilage. We planned a standard external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). During the creation of lacrimal sac flaps, hard tissue was noted in the lacrimal sac. This tissue was excised and sent for pathological examination. The pathological examination revealed cartilage tissue. There were no further ipsilateral symptoms or complications after DCR. In patients with lacrimal system injury related to orbital wall fracture, iatrogenic foreign bodies in the lacrimal sac should be considered in patients with recurrent dacryocystitis who had reconstructive surgery for facial and orbital trauma.

Keywords: Cartilage Graft, Lacrimal System Injury, Orbital Wall Fracture


How to cite this article:
Yuksel N, Akcay E, Kilicarslan A, Ozen U, Ozturk F. A surprise in the lacrimal sac. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2016;23:268-70

How to cite this URL:
Yuksel N, Akcay E, Kilicarslan A, Ozen U, Ozturk F. A surprise in the lacrimal sac. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Oct 16];23:268-70. Available from: http://www.meajo.org/text.asp?2016/23/3/268/180777


   Introduction Top


The medial wall of the orbit (ethmoid, lacrimal, and frontal bones) is very thin. Therefore, it is more likely to be affected by trauma. Different surgical methods using various autogenic and alloplastic implant materials have been used for the reconstruction of orbital wall fractures.

Anatomically, the lacrimal sac is adjacent to the medial wall. It may be expected that trauma and reconstruction surgeries in the medial orbital wall region may cause lacrimal system injury.

Here, we describe a case of recurrent dacryocystitis due to cartilage tissue graft following orbital medial wall fracture repair.


   Case report Top


A 20-year-old man presented with continuous epiphora and mucopurulent discharge from the right eye and painful hyperemic swelling in the medial canthal region of the right lower eyelid. One year before presentation, the patient was involved in a physical alteration and received facial trauma. The patient had undergone surgery for the trauma to reconstruct right medial orbital wall fracture. Unfortunately, his medical documents were not available but a thorough history taking indicated that medial orbital fracture was reconstructed with postauricular cartilage. Shortly after surgery, the patient had permanent epiphora and several recurrent bouts of dacryocystitis. In his external examination, the right lower eyelid was severely erythematous with swelling in the medial canthal area, conjunctival injection, and edema.

His visual acuity, pupillary examination, and ocular motility were normal in both eyes. The patient was diagnosed as acute dacryocystitis and oral amoxicillin and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs. At the 2-week follow-up, acute dacryocystitis was resolved. Irrigation of saline through the upper lacrimal punctum revealed regurgitation of the purulent discharge from the lower lacrimal punctum. Subsequent lacrimal probing revealed a hard stop in the right nasolacrimal duct. Recurrent symptoms of dacryocystitis motivated us to perform dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR).

A standard external DCR incision in the nasojugal fold of the right lower eyelid was used to approach the lacrimal sac. Osteotomy was made using a Kerrison punch. During the creation of lacrimal sac flaps, hard tissue was noted in the lacrimal sac [Figure 1]. This tissue was excised and sent for pathological examination. Bicanalicular silicone stent intubation was performed after suturing of the posterior flaps. Suturing of the anterior flaps was followed by subdermal and skin suturing. Nasal packing was inserted in the nose and removed 1 day after surgery. One day postoperatively, saline passed into the nose during irrigation and no reflux from the canaliculus was detected. The pathological examination revealed cartilage tissue.
Figure 1: Cartilage tissue in the lacrimal sac between anterior and posterior flaps

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There were no further ipsilateral symptoms or complications 3 months after removal of the silicone tube.


   Discussion Top


Orbital fractures can involve four walls of the orbit and can be related to intracranial, optic nerve, lacrimal system, eyelid, and globe injuries. Isolated medial orbital wall fractures account for up to 55% of orbital wall fractures. With combined orbital floor and medial orbital wall fracture, the incidence increases to 84%. [1] To correct and restore the orbital shape and volume with autogenous biomaterials such as cartilage is often used. Nasoseptal and conchal auricular cartilage are usually preferred. The most common complications even after a successful orbital fracture reconstruction is restriction of eye movements, diplopia, dermatomal sensory loss, enophthalmos, and orbital dystopia. [2]

Orbital medial wall and lacrimal system are located closely. Orbital medial wall fractures and surgical interventions for the fractures may affect the lacrimal system. In the current literature, we have not encountered any case with lacrimal system injury related with orbital wall fracture surgery. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report about cartilage tissue in the lacrimal sac after orbital fracture repair.

However, there are reports of foreign bodies in the lacrimal apparatus. To date, a piece of metallic dilator, silicone stent, and punctal plug that was accidentally inserted into the lacrimal system, self-insertion of a fishing line, gauze, and retained Griffiths' collar button were detected in the lacrimal system. [3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10] Similar to our case, Choi et al. reported a case of acute dacryocystitis that developed after same sided ethmoidal sinus reconstruction because of facial trauma. [7] During endoscopic transnasal DCR, severe necrosis around the lacrimal sac, and silastic sheet within the purulent discharge were found. In our patient, cartilage tissue was used for reconstruction of orbital fracture. We are unsure, but it might be inserted into the lacrimal sac iatrogenically. Foreign bodies can migrate, and it is possible that this material might have migrated after surgery. Removal of the cartilage tissue during DCR surgery was curative in our patient.

Iatrogenic foreign bodies in the lacrimal sac should be considered in patients who had reconstructive surgery for facial and orbital trauma.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Brucoli M, Arcuri F, Cavenaghi R, Benech A. Analysis of complications after surgical repair of orbital fractures. J Craniofac Surg 2011;22:1387-90.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ozyazgan I, Eskitasçioglu T, Baykan H, Coruh A. Repair of traumatic orbital wall defects using conchal cartilage. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006;117:1269-76.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Gupta D, Whittet HB, Sood S, Maitra S. Dacryocystitis secondary to an iatrogenic foreign body in the lacrimal apparatus. Ear Nose Throat J 2009;88:1001-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Hussein MA, Coats DK, Paysse EA. Migration and apparent disappearance of silicone tube following treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Am J Ophthalmol 2003;135:905-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Mazow ML, McCall T, Prager TC. Lodged intracanalicular plugs as a cause of lacrimal obstruction. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2007;23:138-42.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Nakao I, Hirata A, Okinami S, Kojima K. A case of self-insertion of a foreign object into the lacrimal sac. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2013;251:1443-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Choi JS, Lee JH, Paik HJ. A silastic sheet found during endoscopic transnasal dacryocystorhinostomy for acute dacryocystitis. Korean J Ophthalmol 2006;20:65-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Shoaib KK. An enlarging mass due to a retained gauze piece-an unusual complication of dacryocystorhinostomy. Can J Ophthalmol 2011;46:372-3.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Lee LB, Dutton JJ. Chronic, recurrent dacryocystitis from a BB in the lacrimal sac. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2014;30:e40-1.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Comez AT, Guclu O, Gencer B, Kara S, Tufan HA. Recurrent dacryocystitis and lacrimocutaneous fistula caused by a retained Griffiths′ collar button stent. Orbit 2014;33:142-4.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


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