|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 67-73
Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye symptoms in a Saudi Arabian population
Abdulaziz A Alshamrani1, Abdulwahab S Almousa2, Abdulrahman A Almulhim2, Abdullah A Alafaleq2, Mohammed B Alosaimi2, Abdulrahman M Alqahtani2, Ammar M Almulhem2, Mohammed A Alshamrani2, Ahmad H Alhallafi2, Ismail Z Alqahtani2, Abdullah A Alshehri2
1 Department of Medical Education, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh; Department of Clinical Affairs, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Clinical Affairs, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
|Date of Web Publication||7-Sep-2017|
Abdulaziz A Alshamrani
King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Orouba Street, Umm Alhamam District, P.O. Box 7191, Riyadh 11462
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: The information about dry eye epidemiology in Saudi Arabia is few in literature.
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of dry eye symptoms (DES) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: Using a multi-stage proportionate sampling technique, Saudis of both genders from 6 urban and 4 rural Primary Health Care centers in Al-Ahsa were enrolled. They were interviewed to gather data on sociodemography, symptoms of dry eye, factors potentially related to dry eye, and chronic comorbidities. If one or more of DESs present often or constantly, we labeled the person with DES.
Results: We examined 1858 Saudi adults with mean age of 39.3 ± 14.1 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of DES was 32.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.0–34.3). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.7–2.6), older age (>56 years; aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0–2.1), current smoking (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1–1.8) and history of diabetes mellitus (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2–2.0) were significantly associated with DES. Nonsignificant variables included residence (urban/rural); work status; wearing contact lenses; multivitamin use; caffeine use; history of trachoma, hypertension, bronchial asthma, coronary artery disease, thyroid disease, arthritis, hemolytic blood diseases (sickle cell-thalassemia), gout, and osteoporosis.
Conclusion: DES are highly prevalent among the adult population of Al-Ahsa. Females, persons more than 55 years of age, smokers and diabetics were associated to DES.
Keywords: Al-Ahsa, dry eye, prevalence, risk factors, Saudi Arabia
|How to cite this article:|
Alshamrani AA, Almousa AS, Almulhim AA, Alafaleq AA, Alosaimi MB, Alqahtani AM, Almulhem AM, Alshamrani MA, Alhallafi AH, Alqahtani IZ, Alshehri AA. Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye symptoms in a Saudi Arabian population. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2017;24:67-73
|How to cite this URL:|
Alshamrani AA, Almousa AS, Almulhim AA, Alafaleq AA, Alosaimi MB, Alqahtani AM, Almulhem AM, Alshamrani MA, Alhallafi AH, Alqahtani IZ, Alshehri AA. Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye symptoms in a Saudi Arabian population. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Sep 25];24:67-73. Available from: http://www.meajo.org/text.asp?2017/24/2/67/214178
| Introduction|| |
“Dry eye is multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is accompanied by increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface.” In spite of the fact that this condition rarely leads to loss of vision, it may reduce the quality of life when its symptoms occur.
Dry eye is a common ocular condition and a major reason for visits to ophthalmologists. Its prevalence varies widely among epidemiological studies depending on how the disease is defined and diagnosed, and which population is surveyed. It is estimated to be 7.4%–33.7%.,, Definitions of the dry eye based on symptoms have been often used to define dry eye prevalence in population-based studies because they are more repeatable and reliable than the objective clinical tests in identifying dry eyes. The validated six-item questionnaire of ocular symptoms related to dry eye, is a widely used effective tool to assess the presence of dry eye.
Some environmental and epidemiological risk factors are thought to put Al-Ahsa population at a great risk for dry eye. As in most of Saudi regions, Al-Ahsa has a hot desert climate with a temperature reaching more than 50°C in the summer months. To cope with this, almost all of its population use air-conditioning at their homes and cars. Trachoma was endemic in this district of Saudi Arabia with a prevalence of 100% in 1955–1970 surveys.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and identify risk factors related to dry eye symptoms (DESs) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.
| Methods|| |
Setting and design
This population-based cross-sectional study was carried out between May and August 2016 in Al-Ahsa Governorate, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia; located about 60 km from the coast of the Arabian Gulf, 350 km from the capital Riyadh, and populated by about 1.1 million, composed of three main regions; urban, populated by around 60% of the total population, rural (43 villages representing 35% of the population) and “Hegar” or Bedouin scattered communities making up the remaining 5%. The Ministry of Health provides primary care in Al-Ahsa through 54 Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers.
Epi-Info™ version 7.2 was used to calculate the required sample size. According to 2010 Census by General Authority for Statistics in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Al-Ahsa population >16 years old is 787,506. Assuming a prevalence of DESs of 27.5% and the worst acceptable prevalence of 25.0%, applying a margin of error of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI]), a minimal sample size of 1224 was required. After adding 20% for potential nonresponse, the final sample size was estimated to be 1469.
An updated list of PHC centers was obtained and a multistage proportionate sampling technique was used. In the first stage, 10 PHC centers were randomly selected from the updated list (six urban and four rural, proportionately; those at Hegar [Bedouin] areas were excluded due to transportation difficulties). In the second stage, with considering a female to male ratio of 1.5:1 among attendees of PHC centers in Al-Ahsa, a suitable sampling fraction was used to estimate the required sample according to male/female and urban/rural distribution.
The form used by the interviewers includes 16 items: Five items for sociodemographic profile, six items about DESs, four items about factors potentially related to dry eye and one item to ask about chronic comorbidities.
To assess DESs, a validated six-item questionnaire of ocular symptoms related to dry eye was used, which included the following questions:
- Do your eyes ever feel dry?
- Do you ever feel a gritty or sandy sensation in your eye?
- Do your eyes ever have a burning sensation?
- Are your eyes ever red?
- Do you notice much crusting on your lashes?
- Do your eyes ever get stuck shut in the morning?
The presence of a symptom was further graded as rarely (at least once in 3–4 months), sometimes (once in 2–4 weeks), often (at least once a week), or constantly (all the time).
The initial questionnaire was constructed in English, which was translated into Arabic by an expert, and then back translated into English by another independent expert to assure the validity of constructs to be assessed. This form was tested on random subjects (n = 62) attending two nearby PHC centers beyond the sample size with the following objectives:
- To assure appropriateness, reliability, and clarity of the terms and questions
- Training of the data collectors on conducting personal interviews.
Saudis of both genders above age of 15 years attending the previously 10 selected PHC centers were invited to a personal interview. Those with difficulties in communications due to neurological/cognitive conditions were excluded. Trained, Arabic-speaking medical interns interviewed the participants, explained the objectives of the study, and collected data using a pretested questionnaire.
Total forms eligible for final analysis were 1858; those with missing of ≥two items were discarded (n = 71). Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 19.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). For categorical data, frequency, proportions, and percentage were used for reporting, and Chi-square test was used for comparisons. For continuous variables, mean and standard deviation were reported, and t-test was used for comparison. The value of P < 0.05 was used to indicate statistical significance. Odds ratio with 95% CI were calculated to study the association between potential risk factors and DESs. Significant variables at the univariate analysis were used to generate adjusted logistic regression analysis.
The presence of one or more of the six dry symptoms often or constantly was considered to be positive. Age-adjusted prevalence was derived using the 2010 population census of Saudi Arabia as the reference standard.
The study protocol was approved by Research Ethics Committee at our institution. Permissions were obtained from the local health authorities. Participants were provided with a full explanation of the study with the emphasis on the right of the subject not to participate. Forms of informed consent were obtained, and data confidentiality was maintained all through.
| Results|| |
Characteristics of the study population
[Table 1] demonstrates sociodemographic profile of the study population and factors possibly related to DESs. The sample was composed of 1858 patients, 892 (48%) were males and 966 (52%) were females. The age was from 16 to 78 years with a mean of 39.3 ± 14.1 years. Urban participants represented 56.8% of the population. Among the participants, 65.1% were working, 15.3% were smokers, 8.3% wore soft or hard contact lenses, 3.8% had a history of trachoma, 19.2% used multivitamin, and 45.3% consumed caffeine almost daily.
|Table 1: Sociodemographic profile of participants (n=1858) and factors possibly related to dry eye|
Click here to view
Symptoms of dry eye
Most frequent DES among the study population was grittiness (21.3%), followed by burning (20.9%), redness (17.8%), crusts (14.9%), dryness (13.5%), and stuck shut (11.6%). [Figure 1] demonstrates the distribution of each DES by the frequency of participant responses (rarely, sometimes, often, or constantly). Nearly 17.2%, 8.4%, 4.1%, 1.6%, 0.7%, and 0.1% of the participants reported 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the six DESs often or constantly, respectively. The overall prevalence of one or more of the six DESs often or constantly was 32.1% (22.9% among men and 40.6% among women). Age-adjusted prevalence rates to the Saudi 2010 population census was similar.
|Figure 1: Distribution of each dry eye symptom by frequency of response (rarely, sometimes, often, or constantly) in the study population (n = 1858)|
Click here to view
Risk factors of dry eye symptoms
Sociodemographic characteristics, factors possibly related to dry eye and chronic comorbidities of participants (n = 1858) were explored as potential risk factors for DESs often or constantly [Table 2] and [Table 3]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.71–2.58, P = 0.001), older age (>56 years; aOR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.03–2.05, P = 0.012), current smoking (aOR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.06–1.85, P = 0.017), and history of diabetes mellitus (aOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.16–1.95, P = 0.001) were associated with significantly higher likelihood for DESs often or constantly. Nonsignificant variables included residence (urban/rural); work status; wearing contact lenses; multivitamin use; caffeine use; and history of trachoma, hypertension, bronchial asthma, coronary artery disease, thyroid disease, arthritis, hemolytic blood diseases (sickle cell-thalassemia), gout, and osteoporosis.
|Table 2: Sociodemographic characteristics of participants (n=1858) and factors possibly related to dry eye were explored as potential risk factors for dry eye symptoms often or constantly|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Chronic co-morbidities of participants (n=1858) were explored as potential risk factors for dry eye symptoms often or constantly|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The results of this population based study in Al-Ahsa has found that the age-adjusted prevalence of DESs often or constantly is 32.1% (95% CI = 30.0–34.3) using a validated six-item questionnaire of ocular symptoms related to dry eye. After adjusting for confounders, DESs were found to be significantly associated with older age (≥56 years), female gender, current smoking, and history of diabetes.
Comparisons between population based studies evaluating dry eye prevalence are difficult due to differences in the choice of dry eye questionnaire and objective clinical tests, the definition of dry eye, and selection of study population [Table 4]. The prevalence of dry eye is estimated to be 7.4%–33.7%,, depending on how the disease is diagnosed and which population is surveyed. Moreover, the definition of dry eye is still under continual revision, and the lack of a single diagnostic tool challenges ophthalmologists worldwide. The 2007 Report of International Dry Eye Workshop recommended to combine subjective symptoms with objective clinical tests to confirm dry eye diagnosis.
|Table 4: Prevalence of dry eye in population-based studies at different parts of the world|
Click here to view
The Salisbury Eye Evaluation study (SEE study) using the same six-item questionnaire to evaluate and define DESs, found 14.6% of participants reported one or more of the six DESs often or constantly. The prevalence decreased to 2% when rose Bengal tests were added. In spite of the fact that the participants of the SEE study were 65 years or older, the prevalence of DESs in our study population 56 years or older were more than twice as high (36.9%). Another population-based study in Taiwan has found that 33.7% of population >65-year-old reported one or more of DESs often or all the time. The prevalence is still higher among the older age participants of our study.
A population-based study conducted in Indonesia using the same validated questionnaire on subjects >21-year-old, found 27.5% of participants reported one or more of the six DESs often or constantly, which is less than the prevalence in our study population. Pterygium and current smoking were independent risk factors identified in that study, and DESs increased with age and male gender. The same association of current smoking and older age with DESs was found in the study; however, we identified female gender as an independent risk factor for DESs. Other epidemiological studies suggest the same relationship between female gender and dry eye.,,,
Possible explanations of higher prevalence of DESs in the study population compared to the previous studies using the same questionnaire are that Saudi Arabia has a hot desert climate with a temperature reaching more than 50°C in the summer months; and as a result, almost all of Saudis use air-conditioning at their homes and cars. Both factors, the climate and air-conditioning, are known to increase the likelihood of having dry eye., In addition, trachoma was endemic in Al-Ahsa with a prevalence of 100% in 1955–1970 surveys. This may explain the high prevalence of DESs among participants ≥56 years. However, trachoma was not found to be significantly associated with DESs in the current study. This can be justified by the relatively small number of participants who reported or “knew” that they had this condition, and a larger number is needed to establish a more reliable result. Similarly, thyroid disease is a documented risk factor in studies evaluating dry eye, and no relationship was found in this study perhaps due to a few number of participants who reported this condition.
The Beaver Dam Eye Study suggested several risk factors for dry eye after controlling for age and gender. These factors included current and past smoking; caffeine use; multivitamin use; history of arthritis, thyroid disease, gout, and diabetes. In this study, none of these factors, except current smoking and diabetes, were significantly associated with DESs often or constantly, either in univariate or multivariate analysis.
Strengths of the study
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study regarding prevalence and risk factors of DESs in Saudi Arabia. This study used a validated six-item questionnaire to study DESs which has been used in other population-based studies. Trained, Arabic-speaking medical interns interviewed the participants and administered the study questionnaire, a factor that reduced reporting bias.
Limitations of the study
This study did not combine subjective tools with objective clinical tests to determine the prevalence and risk factors of dry eye in Al-Ahsa. Despite the subjective nature of self-reported symptoms, they are more repeatable and reliable than objective clinical tests in identifying dry eye. Objective clinical studies of dry eye commonly include Schirmer's test, rose bengal staining, tear meniscus height, and tear break-up time; however, these tests lack sensitivity and underestimate dry eye, or sometimes overestimate by giving false positive results, compared with self-reported symptoms.,,,,
| Conclusion|| |
DESs are highly prevalent in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, as 32.1% of the population are symptomatic. This prevalence is higher than that of the other studies using the same six-item questionnaire of DESs. In this study, female gender, age ≥56 years, current smoking, and history of diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors for DESs often or constantly.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
The definition and classification of dry eye disease: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf 2007;5:75-92.
Lin PY, Tsai SY, Cheng CY, Liu JH, Chou P, Hsu WM. Prevalence of dry eye among an elderly Chinese population in Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2003;110:1096-101.
Lee AJ, Lee J, Saw SM, Gazzard G, Koh D, Widjaja D, et al
. Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye symptoms: A population based study in Indonesia. Br J Ophthalmol 2002;86:1347-51.
McCarty CA, Bansal AK, Livingston PM, Stanislavsky YL, Taylor HR. The epidemiology of dry eye in Melbourne, Australia. Ophthalmology 1998;105:1114-9.
Nichols KK. Patient-reported symptoms in dry dye disease. Ocul Surf 2006;4:137-45.
Bandeen-Roche K, Muñoz B, Tielsch JM, West SK, Schein OD. Self-reported assessment of dry eye in a population-based setting. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997;38:2469-75.
Schein OD, Tielsch JM, Munõz B, Bandeen-Roche K, West S. Relation between signs and symptoms of dry eye in the elderly. A population-based perspective. Ophthalmology 1997;104:1395-401.
JRCC.sa. Saudi Arabia: Jeddah Regional Climate Center; c2016. Available from: http://www.jrcc.sa
. [Last accessed on 2016 Oct 10].
Chandra G. Trachoma in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Rev Int Trach Pathol Ocul Trop Subtrop Sante Publique 1992;69:118-32.
Stats.gov.sa. Saudi Arabia: General Authority for Statistics in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; c2015. Available from: http://www.stats.gov.sa/en
. [Last accessed on 2016 Oct 10].
CDC.gov. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); c2016. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov
. [Last accessed on 2016 Oct 10].
Amin TT, Suleman W, Ali A, Gamal A, Al Wehedy A. Pattern, prevalence, and perceived personal barriers toward physical activity among adult Saudis in Al-Hassa, KSA. J Phys Act Health 2011;8:775-84.
Hashemi H, Khabazkhoob M, Kheirkhah A, Emamian MH, Mehravaran S, Shariati M, et al
. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome in an adult population. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2014;42:242-8.
Jie Y, Xu L, Wu YY, Jonas JB. Prevalence of dry eye among adult Chinese in the Beijing Eye Study. Eye (Lond) 2009;23:688-93.
Schaumberg DA, Sullivan DA, Buring JE, Dana MR. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women. Am J Ophthalmol 2003;136:318-26.
Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118:1264-8.
Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K. Results of a population-based questionnaire on the symptoms and lifestyles associated with dry eye. Cornea 1999;18:408-11.
Caffery BE, Richter D, Simpson T, Fonn D, Doughty M, Gordon K. CANDEES. The Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology study. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;438:805-6.
Rege A, Kulkarni V, Puthran N, Khandgave T. A clinical study of subtype-based prevalence of dry eye. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:2207-10.
Wolkoff P, Nøjgaard JK, Troiano P, Piccoli B. Eye complaints in the office environment: Precorneal tear film integrity influenced by eye blinking efficiency. Occup Environ Med 2005;62:4-12.
Wolkoff P, Nøjgaard JK, Franck C, Skov P. The modern office environment desiccates the eyes? Indoor Air 2006;16:258-65.
Taylor HR. Studies on the tear film in climatic droplet keratopathy and pterygium. Arch Ophthalmol 1980;98:86-8.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]