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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 67-73

Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye symptoms in a Saudi Arabian population

1 Department of Medical Education, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh; Department of Clinical Affairs, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Clinical Affairs, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Abdulaziz A Alshamrani
King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Orouba Street, Umm Alhamam District, P.O. Box 7191, Riyadh 11462
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_281_16

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Background: The information about dry eye epidemiology in Saudi Arabia is few in literature. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of dry eye symptoms (DES) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a multi-stage proportionate sampling technique, Saudis of both genders from 6 urban and 4 rural Primary Health Care centers in Al-Ahsa were enrolled. They were interviewed to gather data on sociodemography, symptoms of dry eye, factors potentially related to dry eye, and chronic comorbidities. If one or more of DESs present often or constantly, we labeled the person with DES. Results: We examined 1858 Saudi adults with mean age of 39.3 ± 14.1 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of DES was 32.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.0–34.3). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.7–2.6), older age (>56 years; aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0–2.1), current smoking (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1–1.8) and history of diabetes mellitus (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2–2.0) were significantly associated with DES. Nonsignificant variables included residence (urban/rural); work status; wearing contact lenses; multivitamin use; caffeine use; history of trachoma, hypertension, bronchial asthma, coronary artery disease, thyroid disease, arthritis, hemolytic blood diseases (sickle cell-thalassemia), gout, and osteoporosis. Conclusion: DES are highly prevalent among the adult population of Al-Ahsa. Females, persons more than 55 years of age, smokers and diabetics were associated to DES.

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