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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 183-189

Epidemiology and clinical features of thyroid-associated orbitopathy in Accra

1 Department of Surgery, Eye Unit, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
2 Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana

Correspondence Address:
Edith Mawunyo Ackuaku-Dogbe
Department of Surgery, Eye Unit, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Ghana, Accra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_91_17

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PURPOSE: Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), a clinical manifestation of Graves' disease, is an autoimmune disorder of the orbital and periorbital tissue. Data on the epidemiology and clinical presentation of TAO in Africa are generally scarce and unavailable in Ghana. We investigated the epidemiology and clinical features of TAO among patients with thyroid disorders attending the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with thyroid disorders which was conducted at the endocrine and orbital clinics of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and confirmed by a thyroid function test. Data collected and analyzed included demography, systemic and ocular features of thyroid disorder, and thyroid function tests. RESULTS: Of the 194 patients with thyroid disorders recruited, 117 (60.30%) had TAO. The mean age was 45.22 years (standard deviation: 13.90). The male:female ratio was 1:4.45. The most common ocular symptoms were “bulging eyes” (76/65.00%) and “puffy eyelid” (62/53.00%), and the common signs were eyelid retraction (97/82.91%) and proptosis (80/68.38%). Mild TAO was diagnosed in 64.96% of patients with only 6.84% having the severe form. The outcomes of the thyroid function test, thyroid disorder, and severity of TAO did not record any statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology is similar to those reported from other parts of the world, but the ocular presentation seems to be milder than in Caucasians.

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