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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 27-32

Prevalence and determinants of dry eye disease among 40 years and older population of Riyadh (Except Capital), Saudi Arabia


Department of Research, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ziaul Haq Yasir
Department of Research, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, POB: 7191, Riyadh 12329
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_194_18

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PURPOSE: The prevalence and determinants of dry eye disease (DED) among 40 years and older population of Riyadh (except capital), Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in Riyadh district between 2013 and 2017. All Saudi aged >40 years attended at the Primary Health Center were the study population. McCarty Symptom Questionnaire was adopted. A representative sample was examined. The best-corrected visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment assessment were performed. DED was graded as absent, mild, moderate, and severe. RESULTS: We examined 890 participants. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of DED was 45.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 44.8–45.4). One-third of the participants had DED. However, two-third of DED cases were of mild grade. The prevalence of DED among females was significantly higher. The variation of DED by age group was not statistically significant (χ2 = 2.6, Degree of freedom = 3, and P = 0.1). Presence of glaucoma was significantly associated to DED (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6, [95% CI = 1.2–5.6], and P = 0.01). Use of topical glaucoma medication was significantly associated to DED (OR = 4.6 [95% CI = 1.8–11.8], and P = 0.001). However, severity of DED was not found to be associated with glaucoma medication (χ2 = 2.6, P = 0.1). Associations of diabetes and hypertension to DED were not statistically significant (OR = 0.97 [95% CI = 0.73–1.3], and P = 0.84) (OR = 1.1 [95% CI = 0.8–1.4], and P = 0.6). The severe visual impairment was not associated to the grade of DED (P = 0.55). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DED among Saudi is high, but severe DED is found to be less. Association with female gender, glaucoma, and topical glaucoma medications was reported. Association with diabetes, hypertension, and age group variation was not significant.


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