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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23-28

Ocular disorders among preschool children in Southwest Nigeria

1 Eleta Eye Institute, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Olubusayo O Adejumo
Eleta Eye Institute, Ibadan, Oyo State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_191_19

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PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and causes of ocular disorders among preschool children. METHODS: A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 560 children from a total of 9944 children aged 3–5 years attending nursery schools in the study area. Demographic and other relevant data were collected from the children. They underwent full ophthalmic evaluation including anterior and posterior segment examination as well as cycloplegic autorefraction. RESULTS: Out of the 560 children screened, 170 (30.3%) were 3 years old, 183 (32.7%) were 4 years old, while the remaining 207 (37.0%) were 5 years old. Male-to-female ratio was 1:1.1. Visual acuity was testable using Lea symbol chart in 90% of the children. Ocular disorders were found in 61 eyes of 35 children giving a prevalence of 6.3%. The most common ocular disorder among participants was refractive error (3.9%), followed by allergic conjunctivitis (1.3%). Other identified ocular disorders were strabismus (0.9%), congenital cataract (0.4%), congenital ptosis (0.4%), optic atrophy (0.4%), ectopia lentis (0.2%), and phthisis bulbi (0.2%). There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of ocular disorders by age or gender. CONCLUSION: Screening is useful in early detection and treatment of ocular disorders in preschool children. Uncorrected refractive error which was identified as the major ocular disorder in these children is treatable. Periodic preschool vision screening would reduce the burden of uncorrected refractive error and other ocular disorders which can interfere with the learning skills of young children entering school.

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