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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 87-92

Burden and presentation of age-related macular degeneration among Nigerians

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Eye Foundation Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria
2 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
4 Department of Ophthalmology, Irrua Specialist Hospital, Edo, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ogugua N Okonkwo
Eye Foundation Hospital, 27 Isaac John Street, GRA, Lagos
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/meajo.meajo_511_20

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PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide, and its prevalence may also be on the increase in Nigeria. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the burden and pattern of presentation of AMD in a developing country. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective study from January to December 2018. Biodata and history of systemic disease were obtained from consecutive patients presenting at four collaborating retina clinics and diagnosed with a retina disease after dilated fundus examination and ocular investigations such as fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. All eyes diagnosed to have wet and dry AMD were used for the study analysis. RESULTS: Out of 8614 patients, 156 eyes of 78 patients were diagnosed with AMD. The hospital-based prevalence for AMD was 0.91%. The mean age at presentation was 67.9 ± 9.2 years, ranging from 44 to 95 years. A majority (75.6%) of patients were between 60 and 79 years, 53.8% were females. Thirty-two eyes (20.5%) had wet AMD, while 124 eyes (79.5%) had dry AMD. Sixty-one eyes (39.1%) had moderate visual impairment (<6/18-6/60); 58 eyes (37.2%) had normal vision (6/18 and better); while 27 eyes (17.3%) were blind, and ten eyes (6.4%) had severe visual impairment. CONCLUSION: AMD contributes to the burden of visual impairment and blindness in the elderly Nigerian. In Nigeria, AMD occurs more in females and most common between the ages of 60 and 79. Dry AMD is four times more common than wet AMD. About 24% of eyes have severe visual impairment or blindness, while about a third each have a moderate visual impairment and normal vision. Increasing awareness of AMD among the at-risk population will be beneficial in achieving early diagnosis and treatment.

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