|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 169-173
Prevalence of color vision anomalies among dental professionals
Zodinliana Ngente1, Baliram Jadav2, Syed Aafaque3, Abhijit Patil4, Rajtilak Govindarajulu5, Prabu Muthusamy6, J Suresh Babu7, C Swarnalatha7, Abhishek Singh Nayyar8
1 Consultant Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, Trinity Hospital, Silaimual, Melthum, Aizawl, Mizoram, India
2 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Meghna Institute of Dental Sciences, Nizamabad, Telangana, India
3 Consultant Orthodontist, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, The KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, KLE V.K. Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, RVS Dental College and Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
6 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, RVS Dental College and Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
7 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Division of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, University of Ha'il, Ha'il, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
8 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Post-graduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||10-Dec-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||15-Nov-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||31-Dec-2021|
Dr. Abhishek Singh Nayyar
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Post-graduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
PURPOSE: Color blindness is one of the potential disabilities affecting the ability of color perception by the eye. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of color blindness among dental professionals.
METHODS: For the present study, a total of 198 dental professionals were randomly selected as subjects who were asked to fill the required questionnaire followed by which their color vision status was evaluated using the Ishihara test. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The prevalence of color blindness, age specificity, and the ratio of the occurrence of color blindness in relation to gender were assessed using Chi-square test for independence and Chi-square test with Yates's correction for independence when the expected frequency was <5. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: The present study reported 3.54% prevalence of color blindness among the study population. A higher number of cases were reported from males (9.26%) than females (1.39%). (P < 0.05) Furthermore, the prevalence of color blindness was found to be more in faculty members (5.88%) than in students with a reported prevalence of 3.31%.
CONCLUSION: The present study reported high prevalence of color blindness in dental professionals while they were totally unaware of it.
Keywords: Color vision anomalies, dental professionals, Ishihara test
|How to cite this article:|
Ngente Z, Jadav B, Aafaque S, Patil A, Govindarajulu R, Muthusamy P, Babu J S, Swarnalatha C, Nayyar AS. Prevalence of color vision anomalies among dental professionals. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2021;28:169-73
|How to cite this URL:|
Ngente Z, Jadav B, Aafaque S, Patil A, Govindarajulu R, Muthusamy P, Babu J S, Swarnalatha C, Nayyar AS. Prevalence of color vision anomalies among dental professionals. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jul 4];28:169-73. Available from: http://www.meajo.org/text.asp?2021/28/3/169/334631
| Introduction|| |
Esthetics plays a vital role in achieving patient satisfaction in restorative and prosthetic dental procedures.,,, The demand of high esthetic outcomes is achieved through the production of an acceptable morphology and shade reproduction in a restoration.,,, The success of the currently available esthetic restorative dental materials depends on correct shade matching while the perception of color is a complex process which depends on various factors. The ability to match the shade of a required prosthesis to that of the adjacent natural teeth is an important goal of restorative dental procedures.,,,, Color vision defect affects the ability of shade matching as a defect in color vision may lead to difficulty in the perception of color., Color blindness, in its congenital form, is the product of genetic mutations that affects the expression of the three types of cone cells present in the eye that respond differently to light of different wavelengths. In its genetic form, color blindness is seen as a common vision disorder, especially, seen in males (gene defect arises on the X chromosome within the Xq28 band)., Cone cells present in the eye are actually photoreceptor cells present in the retina of vertebrate eyes including the human eye. These cone cells respond differently to light of different wavelengths and are, thus, responsible for color vision. Cone cells are densely packed in the fovea centralis of the eye which is a 0.3 mm diameter area with very thin, densely packed cells which quickly reduce in number toward the periphery of the retina. Conversely, cone cells are considered to be absent from the optic disc contributing to the so-recognized, blind spot., There is evidence to suggest that color vision is integral to a number of dental specialties, particularly, restorative and prosthetic dentistry.,,,,, Identifying and informing dental professionals with color blindness should, thus, allow the personnel to receive the necessary support and training to pursue a successful career. The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of color blindness in dental professionals to make them aware about their anomaly, if, it existed and to create awareness about this type of professional limitation which can put a serious hurdle in a successful career in restorative and prosthetic dentistry.
| Methods|| |
The present observational study was conducted in a cross-sectional study design to evaluate the prevalence of color blindness in dental professionals. The sampling frame in the present study included a total of 198 dental professionals including 181 dental students and 17 faculty members who were randomly selected as study subjects for the present study. The sampling technique used in the present study was simple random sampling with random number method used for carrying-out randomization. Ethical clearance for the conduct of the study was duly obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee before the start of the study. The subjects included were informed about the need for the study and written, informed consent was obtained from each subject to participate in the study. The present study was designed as a questionnaire-based survey wherein each subject was asked to fill a questionnaire containing information about age, gender, and designation followed by which color vision status of each subject was evaluated using the Ishihara test [Figure 1]. Six color plates were shown to each subject in-person while the subjects were asked to detect the numbers in the color plates and write them in the questionnaire provided. The questionnaires were, then, evaluated and the data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. All standard instructions for the test were followed in the present study while those who were detected color blind in the test were re-assessed by advanced examination using 17 color plates to confirm the results.
Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The prevalence of color blindness, age specificity, and the ratio of the occurrence of color blindness in relation to gender were assessed using the Chi-square test for independence and Chi-square test with Yates's correction for independence when the expected frequency was <5. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
The prevalence of color blindness in the total sample studied was found to be around 3.54%. Among these, maximum numbers of color-blind cases were reported in the 17–21 years age group, though, a general trend for increase in the probability of color blindness could be seen with increasing age with 2 out of merely 16 cases in the 27–31 years age group found to be color blind than as compared to 17–21 years and 22–26 years age groups wherein 3 and 2 cases, respectively, were found to be color blind in a total of 104 and 73 cases. The overall prevalence of color blindness, thus, was reported at 12.50% in the 27–31 years age group as against 17–21 years and 22–26 years age groups, wherein the recorded prevalence was calculated at 2.88% and 2.74%, respectively [Table 1]. Furthermore, the prevalence of color blindness was found to be more in males with 5 out of 54 (9.26%) cases being affected with the anomaly as against females wherein only 2 out of 144 (1.39%) cases were found to be color blind with the results being statistically significant (P < 0.05) [Table 2]. Again, 1 out of the 17 faculty members was found to be color blind as against the students, wherein 6 out of 181 subjects were found to be color blind with a reported prevalence of 5.88% and 3.31%, respectively [Table 3].
|Table 1: Color vision status according to age group distribution of entire sample|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Vision is a psycho-physical phenomenon based on the sensitivity of cone cells in the retina to wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. There are about 6–7 million cone cells in a human eye which are mostly concentrated toward the macula. These cells are less sensitive to light than the rod cells in the retina which support vision at low light levels, though, allow the perception of color. They are, also, able to perceive finer details and more rapid changes in images because their response times to stimuli are faster than the rod cells.,, Cone cells are normally of three types with each type of cell sensitive to wavelengths of light that correspond to short-, medium- and longer-wavelength light. Since the human eye usually has three kinds of cone cells with different light receptive pigments or, proteins which are called photopsins with different response curves and thus, response to variation in color, the human eye is said to have trichromatic vision. These three pigments, responsible for detecting light, have been shown to vary in their exact chemical composition due to genetic influences, and thus, different individuals have cone cells which have different color sensitivity. Furthermore, since there are three types of cone cells in the eye responsible for spectral sensitivity for color perception when a single type of color receptive cone cells are missing from the eye, the person is unable to distinguish between colors and is said to have color blindness. A person with a loss of red cones is called a protanope and in such a case, the overall visual spectrum is noticeably shortened near the longer wavelength end because of a lack of red cones. Similarly, a person who lacks green cones is called a deuteranope while this person has an almost normal visual spectral width because red cones are available to detect the longer wavelength end. In similar lines, it has been observed that red-green color blindness is a genetic disorder that occurs almost exclusively in males and is rare in occurrence, though, blue-yellow type of color blindness, another related variant, also, called tritanopia, is an extremely rare condition.,, The most commonly used tests for color vision deficiencies are the Ishihara plates used for detecting red-green deficits and the Richmond Hardy, Rand, and Rittler plates used for detecting blue-yellow (tritan) deficiencies while, also, being suitable for acquired color vision defects.,,, As blue-yellow deficiencies are extremely rare, the Ishihara test was employed in the present study. The series of Ishihara color plates are designed to give a quick and accurate assessment of color vision deficiencies of congenital origin in the red-green region. The full Ishihara test consists of 38 plates. Only 6 plates were used in the present study since it is not necessary in all cases to use the whole series of plates. For screening purposes or, in a large scale examination, the test may be simplified to an examination of 6 plates only including No. 1, one of No.s 2, 3, one of No.s 4-7, one of No.s 8, 9, one of No.s 10-13, and one of No.s 14, 15. Furthermore, it may be necessary to vary the order of the plates as per the need if it is suspected that there is a deliberate deception on part of the subject., Furthermore, deuteranopia is a relative color blindness for specific types of cone cells that is detected or, rather, suggested by the test. In the assessment of color vision status using the 6 plates short test, a normal reading for all the plates is required to suggest normal color vision status. In case of a discrepancy, an extended series of tests including more number of test plates like 17 plates or, the full series of plates is used before diagnosing a color vision defect.,, Furthermore, a significant point to be noted in this regard is that the ability to grade the severity of color vision defects is limited and results from such tests cannot yet be used as a basis for deciding on the severity of color vision defect. Numerous studies have shown that color vision defects are common among dental professionals and do affect their abilities.,, The results of the present study were found to be in close accordance with the findings of the study conducted by Moser et al. who conducted a similar study on 670 professionals and found 66 (9.95%) professionals to be color blind. Similarly, Bamise et al. recorded a 6.3% prevalence of color blindness amongst Nigerian dental practitioners with the prevalence being higher in males (8.4%) than in females (3.9%). Barghi et al., also, found 7 out of 50 individuals to be color blind in their study while Wasson and Schuman found 9.3% of the population presenting with color blindness in their study with the males being affected more than females signifying the sex-linked nature of this condition analogous with the findings of the present study. A recent study by Alqahtani et al., also, observed a total of 20.19% of male dental students to be affected with red-green color vision deficiency as compared to 1.4% of female students with 44 male and 3 female students identified with red-green color deficiency out of a total sample size of 203 students included in the study. The frequency of total color vision deficiency observed in the study was found to be 3.9%. A meta-analysis published by Birch including large random population surveys revealed the prevalence of color vision deficiency in European Caucasians to be about 8% in men and 0.4% in women while between 4% and 6.5% in men of Chinese and Japanese ethnicity. Furthermore, another notable finding of the meta-analysis published was that the male: female prevalence ratio was markedly different in Europeans and Asians, thus, suggesting founder events and genetic drift, rather than natural selection, to be the major factors behind these differences. To note, the present study had reported a 3.54% prevalence of color blindness with record higher number of cases reported from males (9.26%) than females (1.39%) (P < 0.05). Deuteranopia is a type of red-green color blindness characterized by the inability to distinguish red and green pigments. Deuteranopia is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, affecting predominantly males. The genes responsible for leading to red-green color blindness are passed down on the X chromosome, thus, manifesting the color vision defect more commonly in males than females.,,,,,,, Color perception plays an important role in the dental profession, though, unfortunately, not many of the professionals are aware of this limitation. The purpose of the present study was to create awareness about this type of compromise among dental professionals. There is no known cure for color blindness. Contact lenses and glasses with filters may be advisable to help color deficiencies or, improve color perception. Fortunately, the vision of most color blind people is normal in all other respects and certain adaptation methods are all that is required.,
| Conclusion|| |
Since esthetics plays a significant role in the successful practice of restorative and prosthetic dentistry, dental professionals should always be concerned regarding esthetics along with the treatment of disease. The present study reported a high prevalence of color blindness in dental professionals included in the study while they were totally unaware of it which is not unusual due to a general lack of awareness about this type of anomaly. Most of the times, dental professionals remain unaware of this type of compromise and it becomes tricky to identify such a compromise existing. At the time of selection in course, a full body check-up is mandatory, but this excludes color vision test. The governing body should pay more attention and must take proper measures in improvising the benchmark criteria during counseling/selection procedures to courses where esthetics are a cause of concern. The present study, thus, concluded that prevalence of color blindness/color vision defect/deficiency among dental professionals was high enough with males having a higher frequency as compared to females, thus, mandating further studies and research in this regard on larger population sizes including subjects from different race, regions, and ethnicity in determining the actual data of its prevalence and its impact on the professional abilities.
To all the patients who contributed to the study without whom this study would not have been feasible.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]