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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 184-188

Corneal perforation as a complication of fungal interface infectious keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

1 Department of Ophthalmology, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Ophthalmology, King Faisal General Hospital, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Wael Otaif
Department of Ophthalmology, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 960, Abha 61421
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/meajo.meajo_114_21s

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Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) is a surgical intervention for corneal diseases that do not affect the endothelium. The creation of an interface between the donor graft and recipient bed is a typical feature of DALK. Interface infectious keratitis (IIK) is an uncommon complication that originates at this point of contact. The onset of IIK following lamellar keratoplasty can cause delayed visual loss and subsequent endophthalmitis, with primarily fungal etiology (e.g., Candida spp.) and occasionally bacterial etiology. Infection of the lamellar interface may be attributed to contamination of the donor material or to precipitating factors such as loose sutures, persistent epithelial defects, and prolonged topical steroid use; fungal IIK is frequently resistant to medical treatment. Here, we describe the previously unreported occurrence of corneal perforation as a complication of fungal IIK after DALK. A 26-year-old otherwise healthy woman underwent uneventful DALK for advanced keratoconus in the left eye. She was discharged with instructions to apply topical prednisolone acetate and topical moxifloxacin. Culture of the donor corneoscleral rim showed growth of Candida glabrata, although the patient exhibited no clinical signs of infection. Approximately 3 months later, the patient exhibited mild blurring of vision in her left eye. Therefore, treatment was modified to topical amphotericin B and oral voriconazole. One week later, the patient developed multiple, sheath-like whitish creamy infiltrates, primarily in the lamellar interface; a positive Seidel test result indicated the presence of corneal perforation. As treatment for IIK, excisional penetrating keratoplasty (PK) was performed, followed by topical amphotericin B and topical prednisolone acetate treatment. During 12 months of follow-up after PK, the corneal graft was clear and there was no clinical evidence of recurrent keratitis. Prompt excisional PK prevented the progression of IIK to endophthalmitis in our patient. Early intervention with excisional PK should be considered when a diagnosis of fungal IIK is suspected in a patient with a positive donor rim culture, and in whom the condition does not respond to medical treatment. This early intervention is essential to prevent delayed treatment, which could result in corneal perforation and endophthalmitis, with ultimately poor visual outcomes.

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