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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2021
Volume 28 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-64

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Endophthalmitis post pars plana vitrectomy surgery: incidence, organisms' profile, and management outcome in a tertiary eye hospital in Saudi Arabia p. 1
Bedoor AlBloushi, Marco Mura, Rajiv Khandekar, Saleh AlMesfer, Abdulmalik AlYahya, Khaled Alabduljabbar, Shaimaa AlRefaie, Valmore A Semidey
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_424_20  
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), organisms' profile, and management outcomes at a tertiary eye hospital in a Middle East country. METHODS: In this single-arm cohort study conducted in 2020, medical records of patients who underwent PPV not accompanied by any other intraocular surgery were reviewed; those with a diagnosis of acute endophthalmitis in the immediate postoperative period (within 6 weeks) during the past 6 years were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 8153 records of PPV surgeries were reviewed. Five cases had endophthalmitis post-PPV with an incidence of 0.061%. Three (0.037%) had positive cultures, all of them for Staphylococcus epidermidis. The interval between PPV and diagnosis of endophthalmitis ranged from 3 to 25 days (mean, 15.8 days). Final vision after treatment ranged from 20/400 to no light perception, and one eye was eviscerated. CONCLUSION: The incidence of endophthalmitis post PPV is low. Despite prompt diagnosis and standard management, visual prognosis seems to be poor. The infective agents for endophthalmitis were commensals from the ocular surface.
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Effect of oral propranolol on periocular infantile capillary hemangioma: Outcomes based on extent of involvement p. 6
Kavya M Bejjanki, Kahkashan Akhtar, Arushi P Gupta, Swathi Kaliki
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_228_19  
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of oral propranolol in the treatment of periocular infantile capillary hemangioma (CHI) based on the involvement of embryological facial placodes and their extent of anatomical involvement. METHODS: Retrospective study of 27 patients. RESULTS: The mean age at the presentation of periocular CHI was 4 months (median, 3 months; range, <1–14 months). There were 11 (41%) males and 16 (59%) females. Based on embryological facial placodes, the involvement was focal in 16 (59%) cases and segmental in 11 (41%) cases. Based on the anatomical distribution, the lesions were preseptal in 4 (15%), postseptal in 13 (48%), and combined in 10 (37%) cases. The duration of use of oral propranolol was 10 months (median, 10 months; range, 4–16 months). Overall, the mean % resolution of periocular CHI was 78% (median, 90%; range, 20%–100%). The mean percentage resolution of focal lesions was 69% (median, 83%; range, 20%–100%), and segmental lesions were 92% (median, 95%; range, 70%–100%). The mean percentage resolution of preseptal component of lesions was 94% (median, 95%; range, 80%–100%) and postseptal component was 74% (median, 85%; range, 20%–100%) over a mean follow-up period of 16 months (median, 15 months; range, 4–37 months). Four (15%) patients exhibited flare-up of lesion after tapering oral propranolol. CONCLUSION: Oral propranolol is effective in the treatment of periocular CHI. Segmental and preseptal lesions respond better to the treatment compared to focal and postseptal lesions.
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Safety and efficacy of epithelial island crosslinking in keratoconus with thinnest pachymetry less than 400µ p. 11
Hisham A Omar, Mohamed-Sameh H El-Agha, Mohamed A Hassaballah, Noha M Khalil
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_186_20  
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of epithelial-island crosslinking (EI-CXL) in keratoconus with corneas thinner than 400 µm. METHODS: Twenty-six patients (30 eyes) underwent EI-CXL (preserving the epithelium over the thinnest area), using standard protocol (3 mW/cm2 for 30 min). Uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA, BCDVA), manifest refractive spherical equivalent (SEQ), mean simulated keratometry (Kmean), maximum keratometry (Kmax), and thinnest corneal thickness (TCT) were determined preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following CXL. Endothelial cell count (ECC) was determined preoperatively and at 6 months. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) was done at 1 month to determine the depth of the corneal stromal demarcation line (DL). RESULTS: After 1 year, mean UCDVA improved from 1.29 preoperatively to 1.17 (P = 0.001) and BCDVA from 0.62 to 0.57 (P = 0.011).Mean manifest SEQ decreased from -7.63 to-7.32D (P = 0.001). Mean Kmean decreased from 54.92 to 54.81D (P = 0.045), and Kmax from 67.60 to 67.42D (P = 0.072), and mean TCT changed minimally from 377.17 to 375.30 µ (P = 0.11). The mean ECC decreased from 2329 to 2268 cells/mm2 (2.6% decrease, P < 0.001). AS-OCT showed a DL in 29 out of 30 eyes at an average depth of 215.9 µ under the spared epithelium, and 299.9 µ in the de-epithelialized cornea. CONCLUSION: EI-CXL halted keratoconus progression over a 1-year period. This was associated with statistically significant endothelial loss, but less than seen with conventional epi-off CXL in thinner corneas.
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Outcomes of combination therapy using aflibercept and dexamethasone intravitreal implant versus dexamethasone monotherapy for macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion p. 18
Walid Harb, Georgio Chidiac, Georges Harb
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_297_19  
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the combination therapy of intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg (Eylea®) and a sustained-release dexamethasone 0.7 mg intravitreal implant (Ozurdex®) versus dexamethasone alone in providing better visual acuity in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). METHODS: Seventy-four eyes of 74 patients with treatment-naïve ME secondary to RVO were included in this prospective nonrandomized case series and were studied over a 12-month follow-up period. Patients in the dexamethasone monotherapy group were treated with an initial Ozurdex® injection while patients in the combination therapy group were treated with an Eylea® injection followed 2 weeks later by an Ozurdex® injection. The treatment was repeated as needed. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and intraocular pressure were evaluated periodically. The primary outcome measure was the BCVA. The secondary outcome measures included CMT, number of retreatments, and safety parameters. RESULTS: At 1 year, the primary endpoint was met. Patients receiving combined therapy had better mean visual acuity changes from baseline compared to those receiving monotherapy (0.369 ± 0.221 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] vs. 0.218 ± 0.171 logMAR; P = 0.002). The secondary endpoints were not met since there were no significant differences in mean reductions in CMT (272.67 ± 82.35 vs. 248.11 ± 159.73; P = 0.412) and the mean number of retreatments was similar in the two groups (1.75 ± 1.13 vs. 1.42 ± 0.64; P = 0.126). CONCLUSION: Aflibercept with dexamethasone implants achieved better visual outcomes compared to dexamethasone monotherapy with no significant differences in intravitreal retreatment rates at the 1st year in eyes with ME secondary to RVO.
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Ocular disorders among preschool children in Southwest Nigeria p. 23
Olubusayo O Adejumo, Bolutife A Olusanya, Benedictus G Ajayi
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_191_19  
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and causes of ocular disorders among preschool children. METHODS: A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 560 children from a total of 9944 children aged 3–5 years attending nursery schools in the study area. Demographic and other relevant data were collected from the children. They underwent full ophthalmic evaluation including anterior and posterior segment examination as well as cycloplegic autorefraction. RESULTS: Out of the 560 children screened, 170 (30.3%) were 3 years old, 183 (32.7%) were 4 years old, while the remaining 207 (37.0%) were 5 years old. Male-to-female ratio was 1:1.1. Visual acuity was testable using Lea symbol chart in 90% of the children. Ocular disorders were found in 61 eyes of 35 children giving a prevalence of 6.3%. The most common ocular disorder among participants was refractive error (3.9%), followed by allergic conjunctivitis (1.3%). Other identified ocular disorders were strabismus (0.9%), congenital cataract (0.4%), congenital ptosis (0.4%), optic atrophy (0.4%), ectopia lentis (0.2%), and phthisis bulbi (0.2%). There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of ocular disorders by age or gender. CONCLUSION: Screening is useful in early detection and treatment of ocular disorders in preschool children. Uncorrected refractive error which was identified as the major ocular disorder in these children is treatable. Periodic preschool vision screening would reduce the burden of uncorrected refractive error and other ocular disorders which can interfere with the learning skills of young children entering school.
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Glaucoma diagnoses and legal blindness from glaucoma among bedouin patients of central Saudi Arabia: A hospital-based study p. 29
Yahya Al-Najmi, Omar Kirat, Maram E. A Abdalla Elsayed, Mohammed Albeedh, Dawood Al-Rashed, Abdulkareem Al-Mohammed
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_77_21  
PURPOSE: The current study aims to know the glaucoma diagnoses and legal blindness from glaucoma among a tertiary referral center in Riyadh (King Abdulaziz Medical City [KAMC]-Riyadh patients). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study on chart review, where all eligible glaucoma patients attending the ophthalmology clinic at KAMC-Riyadh, between 2018 and 2019; were included. RESULTS: A total of 248 patients were included in the study; 142 patients (57.3%) were females and 106 (42.7%) were males. The mean age of the patients was 62.2 ± 18 years and most of them (93.5%) did not have a family history of glaucoma. Nearly one-quarter (26.6%; n = 66) of the included patients were legally blind, out of those, 36.4% had their right eye affected, 34.8% had their left eye affected, and 28.8% had both eyes affected. Legally, blind patients (LBGs) did not show a statistically significant reduction in the intraocular pressure (IOP) in the right eye (P = 0.103), on comparing the IOP in both visits. Nevertheless, there was a statistically significant reduction in the IOP of the left eye among the LBGs in both visits (P = 0.016). Regarding the nonblind group of patients, there were highly statistically significant reductions in both eyes (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The present findings show a high prevalence rate of legal blindness among glaucoma patients, with IOP reduction, age, and glaucoma diagnoses being the most important predictors among the study population.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

A case–cohort study of exfoliation risk factors and literature review p. 36
Ahmad M Mansour, Anastasios G. P Konstas, Hana A Mansour, Abdul R Charbaji, Khalil M El Jawhari
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_358_20  
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the risk factors associated with exfoliation in a case-cohort setting and literature review. This single-center, prospective, case-cohort study was carried out from January 2010 to April 2020 on patients operated for cataract surgery by a single surgeon in Lebanon. Forty-nine consecutive patients with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and 62 consecutive control patients were identified and further investigated for selected systemic (diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, asthma, or atopy) and ocular variables (baseline vision, severity of nuclear sclerosis, glaucoma, eye rubbing, history of dry eye, or allergic eye disease). The mean baseline Snellen visual acuity was 20/283 in XFS versus 20/145 in control cases (P = 0.012). XFS also demonstrated significantly denser nuclear sclerosis than controls (P = 0.00958). By univariate analysis, allergic conjunctivitis (15 [30.6%] vs. 2 [3.2%]; P < 0.001), dry eye (20 [40.8%] vs. 13 [21.0%]; P = 0.0133), and habitual rubbing of the eyes (33 [67.3%] vs. 19 [30.6%]; P < 0.001) were associated with the presence of XFS. Habitual ocular rubbing was closely associated with allergic conjunctivitis (odds ratio [OR] = 13.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8–58.8; P = 0.032). After multivariable analysis, the following variables showed significant results: glaucoma (OR = 34.5; 95% CI: 4.4–250; P = 0.010), duration of surgery (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 2.43–12.9; P < 0.001), and habitual ocular rubbing (OR = 4.42; 95% CI: 1.97–9.90; P = 0.029). This study shows a novel potential correlation between eye rubbing and XFS in a Lebanese cohort. Chronic eye rubbing induces or may exacerbate preexistent zonular damage in subjects with XFS, hence the need to better manage concurrent ocular surface disorder in these patients.
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Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome induced by tamsulosin: The risk and preventive strategies p. 51
Mansour Tobaiqy, Waseem Aalam, David Banji, Ekram N. Abd Al Haleem
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_561_20  
Tamsulosin is an antagonist of a subtype-specific alpha-1A- and alpha-1D-adrenoceptor (AR) that is expressed in the prostate gland, urethra, and bladder. Several reports have shown a possible relationship between ophthalmologic adverse effects and the use of alpha-1-receptor medicines, including tamsulosin. This descriptive review evaluates the intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) associated with tamsulosin. A search of the Medline and PubMed databases was conducted to identify control trials, case reports, and observational examinations published in English. The publication dates were restricted (January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2020). Keywords (tamsulosin, alpha-blocker, ocular, eye, adverse reaction, and IFIS) were used in the searches. The searches identified 66 studies including in vitro or in vivo studies, trials, and observational studies. Twenty-two (33.33%) studies were articles citing tamsulosin and IFIS as having confirmed potential risk to ocular safety. The results of this review, including a comprehensive summary of published research on tamsulosin use in different populations, have identified several articles showing associations between tamsulosin and IFIS that merit further investigation. Suspending of potential causative pharmacological treatment of IFIS before ocular surgery including tamsulosin, proper identification of at-risk patients, preoperative prophylaxis treatments, and surgical technique modifications clearly can mitigate the anticipated risk of IFIS induced by tamsulosin.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Surgical management of hemorrhagic retinal detachment secondary to peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy p. 57
Valmore A Semidey, Abdulaziz A Al Taisan, Patrik Schatz, Ibrahim Taskintuna, Marco Mura
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_139_20  
The purpose of the study is to report a case of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR), managed surgically with favorable visual outcome. A 66-year-old female presented with painless visual loss due to dense vitreous and subretinal hemorrhage extending from the far periphery to the macula. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with subretinal tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) injection was performed resulting in good anatomical and visual outcome. PEHCR can present with severe visual loss. Surgical management with PPV and subretinal TPA injection might result in favorable anatomical and visual outcome.
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Bilateral congenital ptosis associated with optic disc melanocytoma p. 60
Abdulrahman H Badawi, Huda Al-Ghadeer
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_543_20  
We report a rare clinical association of optic disc melanocytoma (ODM) occurring with bilateral congenital ptosis that has not been previously reported. A 28-year-old male patient presented with bilateral congenital ptosis. On examination, his vision was 20/20 in each eye, and dilated fundus examination indicated a pigmented lesion over the left inferior temporal aspect of the optic disc that was consistent with an optic nerve melanocytoma. B-scan ultrasonography indicated a calcified elevated optic nerve head. Bilateral frontalis sling procedures were performed for congenital ptosis with satisfactory results at 1 year postoperatively. There was no progression of the lesion in the left eye. Knowing the key ophthalmoscopic features of an ODM can aid in diagnosing this lesion; ophthalmologists should be familiar with this lesion in addition to the rare association of ptosis. Affected patients should be periodically assessed.
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Pemphigus vulgaris-associated anterior scleritis: A case study p. 63
Salim Alkeraye, Hanan Alsalman, Albanderi Alhamzah, Sulaiman M Alsulaiman
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_442_20  
Ocular involvement in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is relatively rare. The conjunctiva and eyelids are considered the most common affected sites in ocular pemphigus. Scleritis is rarely reported as a manifestation of PV. We present a case report of anterior scleritis as a manifestation of PV and its response to rituximab therapy.
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