Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology

CASE REPORT
Year
: 2015  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 520--521

Rare presentation of ophthalmia nodosa


Shimna Clara Prasad1, Sanita Korah2,  
1 Department of Ophthalmology, Dr SMCSI Medical College, Karakonam, Kerala, India
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Shimna Clara Prasad
T.C-7/739 (1), Koura-22, Kannottukonam Lane, Ulloor, Medical College (P), Thiruvananthapuram - 695 011, Kerala
India

Abstract

We report a rare case of ophthalmia nodosa, presenting as a painless swelling in the lower palpebral conjunctiva for 2 years with no signs of inflammation. Excision biopsy confirmed the diagnosis.



How to cite this article:
Prasad SC, Korah S. Rare presentation of ophthalmia nodosa.Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2015;22:520-521


How to cite this URL:
Prasad SC, Korah S. Rare presentation of ophthalmia nodosa. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 May 22 ];22:520-521
Available from: http://www.meajo.org/text.asp?2015/22/4/520/164627


Full Text

 Introduction



Ophthalmia nodosa is an inflammation precipitated by hairs of certain insects or vegetable material, and it derives its name from the nodular conjunctival reaction that results.[1],[2] Patients usually present with a severe reaction to the caterpillar hairs and have signs of conjunctivitis and uveitis. We report a rare case of ophthalmia nodosa incidentally detected on routine checkup, as the patient did not have any signs of conjunctivitis or uveitis. Ophthalmia nodosa has not been reported as an incidental finding in the literature.

 Case Report



A 40-year-old female reported to the department of ophthalmology, with complaints of defective vision for the past 4 years for which she was using spectacles. She also complained of a swelling in the lower palpebral conjunctiva, which she had noted for the past 2 years. She did not report any history of foreign body sensation, redness, pain, or watering. She did not recall any contact or injury with an insect.

On examination, her best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6, J1 in both eyes. The left eye was normal. Anterior segment evaluation of the right eye revealed a quiet eye with no signs of congestion or inflammation. A 10 mm × 10 mm size nodule was seen in the lower palpebral conjunctiva of the right eye with embedded caterpillar hairs [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].{Figure 1}{Figure 2}

All visible caterpillar hairs were removed from the lesion, and topical steroids were prescribed. However, new hair continued to appear, causing irritation.

An excision biopsy of the granuloma was performed, and the patient symptoms were relieved. Histopathology revealed focal ulceration and secondary histiocytic reaction around linear refractile foreign bodies. No hair follicles were noted.

 Discussion



Ophthalmia nodosa is defined as a nodular conjunctival reaction produced as an inflammatory response to certain insects such as caterpillars or to vegetable hairs.[1],[4] Caterpillars are the larval form of a member of the insect order Lepidoptera, which includes butterflies and moths.[3]

Cadera et al.[5] classified Ophthalmia nodosa into five categories:

Type 1: Acute anaphylactoid reaction to the hair which begins immediately and lasts a few days causing chemosis and inflammationType 2: Chronic mechanical keratoconjunctivitis caused by hair which is lodged in the bulbar or palpebral conjunctiva and leads to linear corneal abrasionsType 3: Grayish yellow granulomatous nodule formed in the conjunctiva and the hair may be subconjunctival or intracorneal, but patients may be asymptomaticType 4: Iritis secondary to hair penetration into the anterior segment and it may become severe with iris nodule formation and hypopyonType 5: Vitreoretinal involvement after hair penetration into the posterior segment.

The patient in this case report is Type 3 where she had a granulomatous swelling with no signs of conjunctivitis or uveitis.

The differential diagnosis of an asymptomatic nodular conjunctival lesion at this site could be dermoid or chalazion.

Excision biopsy determined the absence of hair follicles, or other sebaceous structures, as would be expected in a dermoid. In addition, the cellular reaction was not suggestive of a chalazion.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

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