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Diabetic retinopathy and inflammation: Novel therapeutic targets
Sampathkumar Rangasamy, Paul G McGuire, Arup Das
January-March 2012, 19(1):52-59
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.92116  PMID:22346115
Most anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies in diabetic macular edema are not as robust as in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Although the VEGF appears to be a good target in diabetic macular edema, the anti-VEGF therapies appear to be of transient benefit as the edema recurs within a few weeks, and repeated injections are necessary. There is new evidence that indicates 'retinal inflammation' as an important player in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. There are common sets of inflammatory cytokines that are upregulated in both the serum and vitreous and aqueous samples, in subjects with diabetic retinopathy, and these cytokines can have multiple interactions to impact the pathogenesis of the disease. The key inflammatory events involved in the blood retinal barrier (BRB) alteration appear to be: (1) Increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules such as ICAM1, VCAM1, PECAM-1, and P-selectin, (2) adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium, (3) release of inflammatory chemokines, cytokines, and vascular permeability factors, (4) alteration of adherens and tight junctional proteins between the endothelial cells, and (5) infiltration of leukocytes into the neuro-retina, resulting in the alteration of the blood retinal barrier (diapedesis). VEGF inhibition itself may not achieve neutralization of other inflammatory molecules involved in the inflammatory cascade of the breakdown of the BRB. It is possible that the novel selective inhibitors of the inflammatory cascade (like angiopoietin-2, TNFα, and chemokines) may be useful therapeutic agents in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), either alone or in combination with the anti-VEGF drugs.
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Role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy
Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar
January-March 2012, 19(1):70-74
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.92118  PMID:22346117
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains a major cause of worldwide preventable blindness. The microvasculature of the retina responds to hyperglycemia through a number of biochemical changes, including activation of protein kinase C, increased advanced glycation end products formation, polyol pathway, and oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). There is an accumulating body of evidence that inflammation plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of DR.
  59 8,535 426
The genetics of keratoconus
Dorota M Nowak, Marzena Gajecka
January-March 2011, 18(1):2-6
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.75876  PMID:21572727
Keratoconus (KTCN) is non-inflammatory thinning and anterior protrusion of the cornea that results in steepening and distortion of the cornea, altered refractive error, and decreased vision. Keratoconus is a complex condition of multifactorial etiology. Both genetic and environmental factors are associated with KTCN. Evidence of genetic etiology includes familial inheritance, discordance between dizygotic twins, and association with other known genetic disorders. Several loci responsible for a familial form of KTCN have been mapped; however, no mutations in any genes have been identified for any of these loci. This article focuses on the genetic aspects. In addition, bioinformatics methods applied in KTCN gene identification process are discussed.
  50 11,022 658
Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye symptoms in a Saudi Arabian population
Abdulaziz A Alshamrani, Abdulwahab S Almousa, Abdulrahman A Almulhim, Abdullah A Alafaleq, Mohammed B Alosaimi, Abdulrahman M Alqahtani, Ammar M Almulhem, Mohammed A Alshamrani, Ahmad H Alhallafi, Ismail Z Alqahtani, Abdullah A Alshehri
April-June 2017, 24(2):67-73
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_281_16  PMID:28936049
Background: The information about dry eye epidemiology in Saudi Arabia is few in literature. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of dry eye symptoms (DES) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a multi-stage proportionate sampling technique, Saudis of both genders from 6 urban and 4 rural Primary Health Care centers in Al-Ahsa were enrolled. They were interviewed to gather data on sociodemography, symptoms of dry eye, factors potentially related to dry eye, and chronic comorbidities. If one or more of DESs present often or constantly, we labeled the person with DES. Results: We examined 1858 Saudi adults with mean age of 39.3 ± 14.1 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of DES was 32.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.0–34.3). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.7–2.6), older age (>56 years; aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0–2.1), current smoking (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1–1.8) and history of diabetes mellitus (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2–2.0) were significantly associated with DES. Nonsignificant variables included residence (urban/rural); work status; wearing contact lenses; multivitamin use; caffeine use; history of trachoma, hypertension, bronchial asthma, coronary artery disease, thyroid disease, arthritis, hemolytic blood diseases (sickle cell-thalassemia), gout, and osteoporosis. Conclusion: DES are highly prevalent among the adult population of Al-Ahsa. Females, persons more than 55 years of age, smokers and diabetics were associated to DES.
  50 9,104 729
Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and other eye problems among urban and rural school children
Amruta S Padhye, Rajiv Khandekar, Sheetal Dharmadhikari, Kuldeep Dole, Parikshit Gogate, Madan Deshpande
April-June 2009, 16(2):69-74
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53864  PMID:20142964
Background: Uncorrected refractive error is an avoidable cause of visual impairment. Aim: To compare the magnitude and determinants of uncorrected refractive error, such as age, sex, family history of refractive error and use of spectacles among school children 6-15 years old in urban and rural Maharashtra, India. Study Design: This was a review of school-based vision screening conducted in 2004-2005. Materials and Methods: Optometrists assessed visual acuity, amblyopia and strabismus in rural children. Teachers assessed visual acuity and then optometrists confirmed their findings in urban schools. Ophthalmologists screened for ocular pathology. Data of uncorrected refractive error, amblyopia, strabismus and blinding eye diseases was analyzed to compare the prevalence and risk factors among children of rural and urban areas. Results: We examined 5,021 children of 8 urban clusters and 7,401 children of 28 rural clusters. The cluster-weighted prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban and rural children was 5.46% (95% CI, 5.44-5.48) and 2.63% (95% CI, 2.62-2.64), respectively. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism in urban children was 3.16%, 1.06% and 0.16%, respectively. In rural children, the prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism was 1.45%, 0.39% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of amblyopia was 0.8% in urban and 0.2% in rural children. Thirteen to 15 years old children attending urban schools were most likely to have uncorrected myopia. Conclusion: The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, especially myopia, was higher in urban children. Causes of higher prevalence and barriers to refractive error correction services should be identified and addressed. Eye screening of school children is recommended. However, the approach used may be different for urban and rural school children.
  47 15,938 1,588
Uveal metastasis: Clinical features and survival outcome of 2214 tumors in 1111 patients based on primary tumor origin
Carol L Shields, R Joel Welch, Kunal Malik, Luis A Acaba-Berrocal, Evan B Selzer, Jennifer H Newman, Eileen L Mayro, Alexandru B Constantinescu, Meredith A Spencer, Mark P McGarrey, Austen N Knapp, Alexander E Graf, Alex J Altman, Sean P Considine, Jerry A Shields
April-June 2018, 25(2):81-90
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_6_18  PMID:30122853
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate patients with uveal metastasis based on primary tumor site. METHODS: Retrospective analysis from Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA, for uveal metastasis clinical features and outcomes based on the primary tumor site. RESULTS: There were 2214 uveal metastases diagnosed in 1111 consecutive patients. The demographics included mean age of 60 years (median 61 years), Caucasian race (88%), and female gender (64%). The tumor was unilateral (82%) and primary site was established before uveal metastasis (67%). The primary tumor originated in the breast (37%), lung (26%), kidney (4%), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (4%), cutaneous melanoma (2%), lung carcinoid (2%), prostate (2%), thyroid (1%), pancreas (1%), other sites (3%), and unknown (16%). Comparative analysis of the 5 most common primary sites (breast, lung, kidney, GI tract, and cutaneous melanoma), revealed metastasis at mean age (57, 62, 66, 61, 59 years), as unilateral tumor (74%, 86%, 85%, 93%, 85%), with mean number of metastasis/eye (1.9, 1.7, 1.0, 1.1, 2.0), and in females (99%, 46%, 26%, 25%, 30%). Choroidal metastases measured mean base (9.3, 10.2, 9.1, 11.0, 7.3 mm), mean thickness (2.4, 3.6, 4.4, 4.0, 2.9 mm), and demonstrated predominant color yellow (94%, 91%, 56%, 97%, 36%). Of the 769 patients with documented follow-up, mean patient survival was poor (22.2, 11.5, 8.6, 12.4, 11.4 months) and Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed 3-year survival (33%, 19%, 0%, 14%, 21%) and 5-year survival (24%, 13%, 0%, 14%, 21%). The worst survival was found in patients with pancreatic metastasis (mean 4.2 months) and best survival with lung carcinoid (92% at 5 years). CONCLUSION: In a tertiary referral service, uveal metastasis originates from cancer in the breast, lung, kidney, GI tract, cutaneous melanoma, or others. Overall prognosis is poor with 5-year survival at 23% and worst survival with pancreatic metastasis whereas best survival with lung carcinoid metastasis.
  47 10,353 612
Presentation, diagnosis and management of limbal stem cell deficiency
Kunjal Sejpal, Pejman Bakhtiari, Sophie X Deng
January-March 2013, 20(1):5-10
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.106381  PMID:23580847
The human corneal surface epithelium is continuously repopulated by the limbal stem cells (LSCs). Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD) can lead to corneal opacity and vascularization, with consequent visual impairment or blindness. Many acquired and congenital diseases can lead to LCSD by direct injury to the LSCs, destruction of LSC niche, or both. Based on the severity of the disease, LSCD can present with various symptoms and signs. Although LSCD can be detected clinically, laboratory tests are necessary to confirm the diagnosis and monitor the disease progression. This article concisely reviews the clinical presentation, techniques for diagnosis and management of LSCD.
  46 16,274 875
Carotid cavernous fistula: Ophthalmological implications
Imtiaz A Chaudhry, Sahar M Elkhamry, Waleed Al-Rashed, Thomas M Bosley
April-June 2009, 16(2):57-63
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53862  PMID:20142962
Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. A CCF can be due to a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, or a communication between the cavernous sinus, and one or more meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery or both. These fistulas may be divided into spontaneous or traumatic in relation to cause and direct or dural in relation to angiographic findings. The dural fistulas usually have low rates of arterial blood flow and may be difficult to diagnose without angiography. Patients with CCF may initially present to an ophthalmologist with decreased vision, conjunctival chemosis, external ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Patients with CCF may have predisposing causes, which need to be elicited. Radiological features may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and determining possible intervention. Patients with any associated visual impairment or ocular conditions, such as glaucoma, need to be identified and treated. Based on patient's signs and symptoms, timely intervention is mandatory to prevent morbidity or mortality. The conventional treatments include carotid ligation and embolization, with minimal significant morbidity or mortality. Ophthalmologist may be the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of CCF, and this review article should help in understanding the clinical features of CCF, current diagnostic approach, usefulness of the available imaging modalities, possible modes of treatment and expected outcome.
  45 11,983 1,400
Genetics and genomics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome/glaucoma
Ursula Schlotzer-Schrehardt
January-March 2011, 18(1):30-36
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.75882  PMID:21572731
Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome, one of the most common causes of glaucoma, represents a complex, multifactorial, late-onset disease of worldwide significance. The etiopathogenesis involves both genetic and non-genetic factors. The PEX-specific tissue alterations are caused by a generalized fibrotic matrix process, which has been characterized as a stress-induced elastosis associated with the excessive production and abnormal cross-linking of elastic microfibrils into fibrillar PEX aggregates. The identification of lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) as a major genetic risk factor for PEX syndrome and PEX glaucoma further supports a role of elastogenesis and elastosis in the pathophysiology of PEX, as LOXL1 is a pivotal cross-linking enzyme in elastic fiber formation and stabilization. The available data suggest that LOXL1 is markedly dysregulated depending on the stage of the fibrotic process. While transient upregulation of LOXL1 during the early stages of PEX fibrogenesis participates in the formation and aggregation of abnormal PEX fiber deposits, the decreased expression of LOXL1 during the advanced stages of the disease may affect elastin metabolism and promote elastotic processes, e.g. in the lamina cribrosa, predisposing to glaucoma development. However, in view of the low penetrance of the PEX-associated risk variants of LOXL1, other genetic and/or environmental factors must contribute to the risk of developing the PEX phenotype. Some evidence exists for the contribution of additional genes with relatively small effects, e.g. clusterin (CLU), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2), apolipoprotein E (APOE), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA), in certain study populations. Several environmental conditions associated with PEX, such as oxidative stress as well as pro-fibrotic cytokines and growth factors, can regulate expression of LOXL1 and elastic proteins in vitro and may therefore act as co-modulating external factors. Ultimately, both detection and functional characterization of yet unidentified genetic and non-genetic factors may lead to the development of more precise screening tools for the risk of PEX glaucoma.
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Epidemiology of glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, incidence and risk factors
Fatima Kyari, Mohammed M Abdull, Andrew Bastawrous, Clare E Gilbert, Hannah Faal
April-June 2013, 20(2):111-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.110605  PMID:23741130
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Results: Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Conclusion: Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma.
  43 21,520 1,413
Imaging in diabetic retinopathy
David A Salz, Andre J Witkin
April-June 2015, 22(2):145-150
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.151887  PMID:25949070
While the primary method for evaluating diabetic retinopathy involves direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, various imaging modalities are of significant utility in the screening, evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of different presentations and manifestations of this disease. This manuscript is a review of the important imaging modalities that are used in diabetic retinopathy, including color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, B-scan ultrasonography, and optical coherence tomography. The article will provide an overview of these different imaging techniques and how they can be most effectively used in current practice.
  42 10,027 920
Retinopathy of prematurity: A study of prevalence and risk factors
Abdel H. A. A. Hakeem, Gamal B Mohamed, Mohamed F Othman
July-September 2012, 19(3):289-294
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.97927  PMID:22837621
Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a serious complication of prematurity treatment and can lead to blindness unless recognized and treated early. Objective: The objective was to estimate the prevalence of ROP in preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), to identify the risk factors which predispose to ROP, and to assess the outcome of these cases. Materials and Methods: A ROP prospective screening survey was performed enrolling all prematures admitted to the NICU from January 2009 to December 2010, with a gestational age of 32 weeks or less at birth and a birth weight of 1500 g or less. Infants whose gestational age was >32 weeks or birth weight was >1500 g were included if they were exposed to oxygen therapy for more than 7 days. A total of 172 infants (84 males and 88 females) had retinal evaluation by indirect ophthalmoscopy from the fourth postnatal week and followed up periodically. Perinatal risk factors for ROP were assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Infants who progressed to stage 3 ROP were given laser therapy. Results: Out of the studied 172 infants, 33 infants (19.2%) developed ROP in one or both eyes; 18 (54.5%) cases stage 1, 9 (27.3%) cases stage 2, and 6 (18.2%) cases stage 3. None of the studied neonates presented ROP at stages 4 or 5. The six cases diagnosed as ROP stage 3 underwent laser ablative therapy. Univariate analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of ROP and gestational age (P = 0.000), sepsis (P = 0.004), oxygen therapy (P = 0.018), and frequency of blood transfusions (P = 0.030). However, an insignificant relationship was found between the occurrence of ROP and sex, mode of delivery, birth weight, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, hypotension, phototherapy, duration of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and CPAP (all P > 0.05). Gestational age, sepsis, oxygen therapy, and frequency of blood transfusions remained significant variables after logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The prevalence of ROP in this study was 19.2%; low gestational age, sepsis, oxygen therapy, and frequent blood transfusions were significant risk factors for ROP. Laser was effective in treatment and decreasing the progression of ROP. As this is a unit-based study, a comprehensive countrywide survey on ROP in Egypt is recommended to determine any regional differences in disease prevalence.
  42 11,611 1,086
Nanotechnology approaches for ocular drug delivery
Qingguo Xu, Siva P Kambhampati, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
January-March 2013, 20(1):26-37
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.106384  PMID:23580849
Blindness is a major health concern worldwide that has a powerful impact on afflicted individuals and their families, and is associated with enormous socio-economical consequences. The Middle East is heavily impacted by blindness, and the problem there is augmented by an increasing incidence of diabetes in the population. An appropriate drug/gene delivery system that can sustain and deliver therapeutics to the target tissues and cells is a key need for ocular therapies. The application of nanotechnology in medicine is undergoing rapid progress, and the recent developments in nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches may bring significant benefits to address the leading causes of blindness associated with cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinal degeneration. In this brief review, we highlight some promising nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches for drug and gene delivery to the anterior and posterior segments.
  40 22,536 1,258
Idiopathic orbital inflammation: Review of literature and new advances
Yağmur Seda Yeşiltaş, Ahmet Kaan Gündüz
April-June 2018, 25(2):71-80
DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_44_18  PMID:30122852
Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) is a benign inflammatory condition usually confined to the orbit but extraorbital extension can also occur. IOI has been classified into categories including anterior, diffuse, posterior or apical, myositis, and dacryoadenitis. Other rare types of IOI include periscleritis, perineuritis, and focal mass. Diagnosis is based on careful history, clinical findings, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. An orbital biopsy is usually done for accessible orbital lesions such as dacryoadenitis. For other types such as myositis and apical IOI where surgery is difficult or dangerous, orbital biopsy is not initially considered. The mainstay of therapy consists of systemic corticosteroids, but other options including external beam radiotherapy, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, T-cell/calcineurin inhibitors, lymphocyte inhibitors, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, and surgical debulking have also been used.
  39 10 35
Update on sympathetic Ophthalmia
J Fernando Arevalo, Reinaldo A Garcia, Hassan A Al-Dhibi, Juan G Sanchez, Luis Suarez-Tata
January-March 2012, 19(1):13-21
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.92111  PMID:22346110
Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) is a bilateral diffuse granulomatous intraocular inflammation that occurs in most cases within days or months after surgery or penetrating trauma to one eye. The incidence of SO ranges from 0.2 to 0.5% after penetrating ocular injuries and 0.01% after intraocular surgery. Vitreoretinal surgery and cyclodestructive procedures are considered risk factors. The time from ocular injury to onset of SO varies greatly, ranging from a few days to decades, with 80% of the cases occurring within 3 months after injury to the exciting eye and 90% within 1 year. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings rather than on serological testing or pathological studies. It presents as a bilateral diffuse uveitis. Patients report an insidious onset of blurry vision, pain, epiphora, and photophobia in the sympathizing, non-injured eye. Classically this is accompanied by conjunctival injection and a granulomatous anterior chamber reaction with mutton-fat keratic precipitates (KPs) on the corneal endothelium. In the posterior segment, the extent of inflammation can vary. Systemic corticosteroids are the first line therapy for SO. If patients are non-responsive to steroid therapy or have clinically significant side effects, cyclosporine, azathioprine or other immunosuppressive agents can be used for long-term immunomodulatory therapy.
  37 18,787 1,075
Fibrin sealant-assisted revision of the exposed Ahmed tube
Nikhil S Choudhari, Aditya Neog, Supriya Latka, Bhaskar Srinivasan
January-March 2015, 22(1):115-116
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.148360  PMID:25624685
Tube exposure is a known complication of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Repair of the exposed tube is not easy. A 42-year-old monocular aphakic male had undergone retinal detachment repair with placement of an episcleral-encircling band followed by implantation of AGV. He presented to the clinic on routine review with exposure of the shunt tube. The complication was managed by placing scleral and conjunctival grafts over the exposed tube using a fibrin adhesive (Tisseel kit; Baxter AG, Vienna, Austria). The novel use of the fibrin sealant in the repair of AGV tube exposure was for better graft-integration.
  36 4,176 181
Orbital pseudotumor: Distinct diagnostic features and management
Imtiaz A Chaudhry, Farrukh A Shamsi, Yonca O Arat, Fenwick C Riley
January-March 2008, 15(1):17-27
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53370  PMID:20379424
Purpose: To provide an overview of the spectrum of diseases known as 'idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome' also known as orbital pseudotumor, with emphasis on specific diagnostic challenges in the evaluation and management of patients with this disorder. Methods: Review of the relevant literature and summarize recent findings regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of orbital pseudotumor. Results : Orbital pseudotumor is a benign intraorbital process confined to the orbit but extra orbital involvement can occur. It is among the 3 rd most common orbital diseases along with thyroid orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative disorder and accounts for 5-10% of orbital processes. Clinically, orbital pseudotumor has been categorized as myositis, dacryoadenitis, anterior, apical and diffuse process. Patients may present with diplopia, conjunctival chemosis, proptosis or abnormal computed tomography scan (CT-scan) findings. Patients may also have associated optic neuropathy. Diagnosis is based on careful history, ultrasonography (U/S), CT-scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies which may also provide prognostic information. Treatment consists of systemic corticosteroids in the form of oral or intravenous administration. Confirmation is made by orbital biopsy. In addition to radiation, cytotoxic agents, immunosuppressant, IV immunoglobulin, biological therapy, TNF-alpha inhibitor monoclonal antibody and Mycophenolate Moftil have been found to be useful in the management of refractory orbital pseudotumor. Conclusion: Understanding of the clinical features of patients with orbital pseudotumor, differentiating it from other orbital processes by use of imaging techniques and timely implementation of available treatment strategies may help prevent visual loss and associated morbidity from this condition.
  33 27,613 2,113
Epidemiological issues in diabetic retinopathy
Peter H Scanlon, Stephen J Aldington, Irene M Stratton
October-December 2013, 20(4):293-300
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.120007  PMID:24339678
There is currently an epidemic of diabetes in the world, principally type 2 diabetes that is linked to changing lifestyle, obesity, and increasing age of the population. Latest estimates from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) forecasts a rise from 366 million people worldwide to 552 million by 2030. Type 1 diabetes is more common in the Northern hemisphere with the highest rates in Finland and there is evidence of a rise in some central European countries, particularly in the younger children under 5 years of age. Modifiable risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are blood glucose, blood pressure, serum lipids, and smoking. Nonmodifiable risk factors are duration, age, genetic predisposition, and ethnicity. Other risk factors are pregnancy, microaneurysm count in an eye, microaneurysm formation rate, and the presence of any DR in the second eye. DR, macular edema (ME), and proliferative DR (PDR) develop with increased duration of diabetes and the rates are dependent on the above risk factors. In one study of type 1 diabetes, the median individual risk for the development of early retinal changes was 9.1 years of diabetes duration. Another study reported the 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy among population-based cohort of type 1 patients with diabetes was 42.9%. In recent years, people with diabetes have lower rates of progression than historically to PDR and severe visual loss, which may reflect better control of glucose, blood pressure, and serum lipids, and earlier diagnosis.
  31 9,117 877
Adult learning principles and presentation pearls
Ana G Palis, Peter A Quiros
April-June 2014, 21(2):114-122
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.129748  PMID:24791101
Although lectures are one of the most common methods of knowledge transfer in medicine, their effectiveness has been questioned. Passive formats, lack of relevance and disconnection from the student's needs are some of the arguments supporting this apparent lack of efficacy. However, many authors have suggested that applying adult learning principles (i.e., relevance, congruence with student's needs, interactivity, connection to student's previous knowledge and experience) to this method increases learning by lectures and the effectiveness of lectures. This paper presents recommendations for applying adult learning principles during planning, creation and development of lectures to make them more effective.
  31 21,985 1,318
Barriers to cataract surgery in Africa: A systematic review
Shaheer Aboobaker, Paul Courtright
January-March 2016, 23(1):145-149
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.164615  PMID:26957856
Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness in Africa. We performed a systematic literature search of articles reporting barriers to cataract surgery in Africa. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched with the terms "barriers, cataract, Africa, cataract surgery, cataract surgical coverage (CSC), and rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB)." The review covered from 1999 to 2014. In RAAB studies, barriers related to awareness and access were more commonly reported than acceptance. Other type of studies reported cost as the most common barrier. Some qualitative studies tended to report community and family dynamics as barriers to cataract surgery. CSC was lower in females in 88.2% of the studies. The variability in outcomes of studies of barriers to cataract surgery could be due to context and the type of data collection. It is likely that qualitative data will provide a deeper understanding of the complex social, family, community, financial and gender issues relating to barriers to uptake of cataract surgery in Africa.
  31 11,238 668
Diabetic retinopathy and systemic factors
Robert N Frank
April-June 2015, 22(2):151-156
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.154388  PMID:25949071
Diabetic retinopathy, an oculardisease, is governed by systemic as well as local ocular factors. These include primarily chronic levels of blood glucose. Individuals with chronically elevated blood glucose levels have substantially more, and more severe, retinopathy than those with lower blood glucose levels. The relationship of blood glucose to retinopathy is continuous, with no threshold although individuals with hemoglobin A1c levels (a measure of chronic glycemia) <6.5%, generally develop little or no retinopathy. Blood pressure levels have been claimed to influence retinopathy development and progression, but multiple controlled clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in diabetic subjects have produced only weak evidence of benefit from blood pressure lowering on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Elevated blood lipids seem to play a role in the progression of retinopathy, and two trials of fenofibrate, a lipid-lowering agent that has not proved effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, have shown benefit in preventing retinopathy progression. The mechanism of this effect may not, however, be directly related to the reduction in blood lipids. Finally, there is strong, but only circumstantial, evidence for a genetic or epigenetic influence on the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Despite the power of large-scale epidemiologic studies and modern molecular biological and computational techniques, the gene or genes, which predispose or protect against the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy remain elusive.
  30 7,313 655
Continuing professional development: Best practices
Helena P Filipe, Eduardo D Silva, Andries A Stulting, Karl C Golnik
April-June 2014, 21(2):134-141
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.129760  PMID:24791104
Continuing professional development (CPD) involves not only educational activities to enhance medical competence in medical knowledge and skills, but also in management, team building, professionalism, interpersonal communication, technology, teaching, and accountability. This paper aims at reviewing best practices to promote effective CPD. Principles and guidelines, as already defined by some professional societies and world organizations, are emphasized as core actions to best enhance an effective lifelong learning after residency. The personal learning plan (PLP) is discussed as the core of a well-structured CPD and we describe how it should be created. Fundamental CPD principles and how they are integrated in the framework of every physician's professional life will be described. The value of systematic and comprehensive CPD documentation and assessment is emphasized. Accreditation requirements and professional relationships with commercial sponsors are discussed.
  30 20,051 1,880
Meta-analysis to compare the safety and efficacy of manual small incision cataract surgery and phacoemulsification
Parikshit Gogate, Jyoti Jaggernath B Optom, Swapna Deshpande, Kovin Naidoo
July-September 2015, 22(3):362-369
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.159763  PMID:26180478
Purpose: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the safety, efficacy, and expenses related to phacoemulsification versus manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS). Methods: PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus databases were searched with key words manual SICS 6/18 and 6/60; astigmatism and endothelial cell loss postoperatively, intra- and post-operative complications, phacoemulsification, and comparison of SICS and phacoemulsification. Non-English language manuscripts and manuscripts not indexed in the three databases were also search for comparison of SICS with phacoemulsification. Data were compared between techniques for postoperative uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UCVA and best corrected visual acuity [BCVA], respectively) better than 6/9, surgical cost and duration of surgery. The Oxford cataract treatment and evaluation team scores were used for grading intraoperative and postoperative complications, uncorrected near vision. Result: This review analyzed, 11 comparative studies documenting 76,838 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery considered for analysis. UCVA of 6/18 UCVA and 6/18 BCVA were comparable between techniques (P = 0.373 and P = 0.567, respectively). BCVA of 6/9 was comparable between techniques (P = 0.685). UCVA of 6/60 and 6/60 BCVA aided and unaided vision were comparable (P = 0.126 and P = 0.317, respectively). There was no statistical difference in: Endothelial cell loss during surgery (P = 0.298), intraoperative (P = 0.964) complications, and postoperative complications (P = 0.362). The phacoemulsification group had statistically significantly less astigmatism (P = 0.005) and more eyes with UCVA of 6/9 (P = 0.040). UCVA at near was statistically significantly better with SICS due to astigmatism and safer during the learning phase (P = 0.003). The average time for SICS was lower than phacoemulsification and cost <½ of phacoemulsification. Conclusion: The outcome of this meta-analysis indicated there is no difference between phacoemulsification and SICS for BCVA and UCVA of 6/18 and 6/60. Endothelial cell loss and intraoperative and postoperative complications were similar between procedures. SICS resulted in statistically greater astigmatism and UCVA of 6/9 or worse, however, near UCVA was better.
  29 9,023 839
Blepharitis: Always remember demodex
Vipul Bhandari, Jagadeesh K Reddy
October-December 2014, 21(4):317-320
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.142268  PMID:25371637
Purpose: To determine the incidence and density of Demodex species on the eyelashes of subjects with normal eyelids, anterior blepharitis (AB), meibomian-gland dysfunction (MGD), and mixed blepharitis (MB). Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive patients diagnosed with AB, MGD, and MB were recruited. An additional 50 individuals were recruited who were free of lid and margin disease to serve as a control group. All patients underwent a standard eye examination. Data on ocular symptomatology were gathered. Digital photography was performed of the lid margins. Lash sampling was performed by epilating the lashes and the lashes were checked for Demodex based on morphology using light microscopy. The total number of mites were tabulated for each eye. Comparison between the affected eyes and the control eyes was performed. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 200 patients were included. Twenty percenth had AB, 40% had MGD, and 40% had MB. The incidence of Demodex infestation was 90% in cases of AB, 60% in MGD cases, and 90% in MB cases. The incidence of Demodex in control subjects was 18%. Conclusions: The incidence and density of Demodex infestation was highest in patients with AB and MB. Lid irritation and presence of cylindrical dandruff were indicative of a high-density infestation. These signs should alert the clinician to treat concomitant Demodex infestation.
  27 6,628 544
Vascular tumors of the retina and choroid: Diagnosis and treatment
Mary E Turell, Arun D Singh
July-September 2010, 17(3):191-200
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.65486  PMID:20844673
The vascular tumors of the retina and choroid comprise a diverse group of congenital and acquired lesions. The major vascular tumors of the retina include retinal capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma of the retina, retinal vasoproliferative tumor, and racemose hemangiomatosis of the retina or Wyburn-Mason syndrome. Choroidal vascular tumors include circumscribed choroidal hemangioma and diffuse choroidal hemangioma. While classified as benign, visual symptoms secondary to exudative retinal detachment and a variety of other mechanisms are common and are a major source of long-term visual disability. While many therapeutic modalities exist, treatment of symptomatic cases can be challenging. Of particular importance, many of the vascular tumors of the retina and choroid have significant associations with systemic disease. As ocular symptoms are often the most common presenting disease manifestation, the ophthalmologist plays an important role in accurate and early diagnosis. The ability to initiate prompt screening and treatment in appropriate cases is critical. In the following article, the key clinical and diagnostic features of the major retinal and choroidal vascular tumors, their systemic associations, and the literature pertaining to the most currently available treatment strategies are reviewed.
  26 15,268 881
* Source: CrossRef