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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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CASE REPORTS
Neodymium: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser anterior hyaloidotomy to treat trapped triamcinolone acetonide behind the crystalline lens after intravitreal injection
Francisco J Ascaso, Erika Ruiz de Gopegui, José M Cascante
January-March 2012, 19(1):163-165
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.92135  PMID:22346134
A 65-year-old male underwent intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection for treating a clinically significant macular edema (CSME) due to background diabetic retinopathy in his left eye. On the first postoperative day, visual acuity dropped from 20/80 to hand movements. Slit-lamp examination showed the drug between the posterior capsule of the lens and the anterior hyaloid face. Two weeks later, visual acuity and the milky fluid seemed unchanged. Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser anterior hyaloidotomy was performed. One week later, slit-lamp examination of the retrolental space revealed the complete disappearance of triamcinolone and intraocular pressure remained stable. After a follow-up period of 2 months, visual acuity increased to 20/50 with the lens remaining clear. Nd:YAG laser anterior hyaloidotomy is an effective, simple, useful and minimally invasive outpatient procedure in patients with persistent entrapment of triamcinolone behind the crystalline lens, allowing the drug to clear without trauma to the lens.
  31,584 146 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Orbital pseudotumor: Distinct diagnostic features and management
Imtiaz A Chaudhry, Farrukh A Shamsi, Yonca O Arat, Fenwick C Riley
January-March 2008, 15(1):17-27
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53370  PMID:20379424
Purpose: To provide an overview of the spectrum of diseases known as 'idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome' also known as orbital pseudotumor, with emphasis on specific diagnostic challenges in the evaluation and management of patients with this disorder. Methods: Review of the relevant literature and summarize recent findings regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of orbital pseudotumor. Results : Orbital pseudotumor is a benign intraorbital process confined to the orbit but extra orbital involvement can occur. It is among the 3 rd most common orbital diseases along with thyroid orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative disorder and accounts for 5-10% of orbital processes. Clinically, orbital pseudotumor has been categorized as myositis, dacryoadenitis, anterior, apical and diffuse process. Patients may present with diplopia, conjunctival chemosis, proptosis or abnormal computed tomography scan (CT-scan) findings. Patients may also have associated optic neuropathy. Diagnosis is based on careful history, ultrasonography (U/S), CT-scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies which may also provide prognostic information. Treatment consists of systemic corticosteroids in the form of oral or intravenous administration. Confirmation is made by orbital biopsy. In addition to radiation, cytotoxic agents, immunosuppressant, IV immunoglobulin, biological therapy, TNF-alpha inhibitor monoclonal antibody and Mycophenolate Moftil have been found to be useful in the management of refractory orbital pseudotumor. Conclusion: Understanding of the clinical features of patients with orbital pseudotumor, differentiating it from other orbital processes by use of imaging techniques and timely implementation of available treatment strategies may help prevent visual loss and associated morbidity from this condition.
  19,515 1,390 10
SYMPOSIUM - OCULAR THERAPEUTICS OF THE FUTURE
Nanotechnology approaches for ocular drug delivery
Qingguo Xu, Siva P Kambhampati, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
January-March 2013, 20(1):26-37
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.106384  PMID:23580849
Blindness is a major health concern worldwide that has a powerful impact on afflicted individuals and their families, and is associated with enormous socio-economical consequences. The Middle East is heavily impacted by blindness, and the problem there is augmented by an increasing incidence of diabetes in the population. An appropriate drug/gene delivery system that can sustain and deliver therapeutics to the target tissues and cells is a key need for ocular therapies. The application of nanotechnology in medicine is undergoing rapid progress, and the recent developments in nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches may bring significant benefits to address the leading causes of blindness associated with cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinal degeneration. In this brief review, we highlight some promising nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches for drug and gene delivery to the anterior and posterior segments.
  11,613 756 19
EYE PATHOLOGY UPDATES
Update in pathological diagnosis of orbital infections and inflammations
Vincent B Lam Choi, Hunter K.L Yuen, Jyotirmay Biswas, Myron Yanoff
October-December 2011, 18(4):268-276
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.90127  
Orbital infections and inflammations include a broad spectrum of orbital diseases that can be idiopathic, infectious, from primary or secondary inflammatory processes. Being able to properly diagnose and manage these orbital diseases in a timely manner can avoid permanent vision loss and possibly save a patient's life. When clinicians are faced with such patients, quite often the exact diagnosis cannot be made just based on clinical examination, various laboratory tests and imaging are needed. Moreover, orbital biopsies with histopathological analyses are often required, especially for the atypical cases. Thus, it is important for the clinicians to be familiar with the pathological features and characteristics of these orbital diseases. This review provides a comprehensive update on the clinical and pathological diagnosis of these orbital infections and inflammations.
  11,317 322 4
CASE REPORTS
Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome
Debabrata Das, Gobinda Das, Sibnath Gayen, Arpita Konar
April-June 2011, 18(2):192-194
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.80713  PMID:21731335
Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case.
  11,442 154 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis: A current review
Sawsan R Nowilaty, Hanan N Al-Shamsi, Wajeeha Al-Khars
July-September 2010, 17(3):224-241
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.65501  PMID:20844678
Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis (IJFT), also known as parafoveal telangiectasis or idiopathic macular telangiectasia, refers to a heterogeneous group of well-recognized clinical entities characterized by telangiectatic alterations of the juxtafoveolar capillary network of one or both eyes, but which differ in appearance, presumed pathogenesis, and management strategies. Classically, three groups of IJFT are identified. Group I is unilateral easily visible telangiectasis occurring predominantly in males, and causing visual loss as a result of macular edema. Group II, the most common, is bilateral occurring in both middle-aged men and women, and presenting with telangiectasis that is more difficult to detect on biomicroscopy, but with characteristic and diagnostic angiographic and optical coherence tomography features. Vision loss is due to retinal atrophy, not exudation, and subretinal neovascularization is common. Group III is very rare characterized predominantly by progressive obliteration of the perifoveal capillary network, occurring usually in association with a medical or neurologic disease. This paper presents a current review of juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis, reviewing the classification of these entities and focusing primarily on the two most common types encountered in clinical practice, i.e., groups I and II, describing their clinical features, histopathology, natural history, complications, latest results from imaging modalities and functional studies, differential diagnosis, and treatment modalities.
  10,048 866 5
SYMPOSIUM - UVEITIS UPDATE
Appraisal, work-up and diagnosis of anterior uveitis: A practical approach
Carl P Herbort
October-December 2009, 16(4):159-167
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.58416  PMID:20404984
This article presents a comprehensive approach of the diagnosis of anterior uveitis and appropriate investigational tests based on clinical signs. Uveitis has classically been presented by uveitis specialists as an obscure and complicated field in ophthalmology that was supposed to be restricted to the happy few who had the knowledge, which in some countries was even prevented from being diffused. The effect was that ophthalmologists turned away from uveitis or were not correctly armed when they chose to take care of uveitis patients. The consequences of this situation often fell upon the patients. Since more than 15 years our group has been represented by the Society for Ophthalmo-Immunoinfectiology in Europe (SOIE), which has been working to alter this image of uveitis and ensure that the knowledge of the basics of uveitis reaches the practicing ophthalmologist. Our firm believe is that up to 70% of uveitis cases, especially anterior uveitis, can be taken care of by the practicing ophthalmologist following a structured approach in the appraisal of the uveitis case. Judging from the attendance obtained, the response to our approach in every country (where we organise courses) has been inversely proportional to the previous disinterest since we started publicizing it.
  9,500 924 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and other eye problems among urban and rural school children
Amruta S Padhye, Rajiv Khandekar, Sheetal Dharmadhikari, Kuldeep Dole, Parikshit Gogate, Madan Deshpande
April-June 2009, 16(2):69-74
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53864  PMID:20142964
Background: Uncorrected refractive error is an avoidable cause of visual impairment. Aim: To compare the magnitude and determinants of uncorrected refractive error, such as age, sex, family history of refractive error and use of spectacles among school children 6-15 years old in urban and rural Maharashtra, India. Study Design: This was a review of school-based vision screening conducted in 2004-2005. Materials and Methods: Optometrists assessed visual acuity, amblyopia and strabismus in rural children. Teachers assessed visual acuity and then optometrists confirmed their findings in urban schools. Ophthalmologists screened for ocular pathology. Data of uncorrected refractive error, amblyopia, strabismus and blinding eye diseases was analyzed to compare the prevalence and risk factors among children of rural and urban areas. Results: We examined 5,021 children of 8 urban clusters and 7,401 children of 28 rural clusters. The cluster-weighted prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban and rural children was 5.46% (95% CI, 5.44-5.48) and 2.63% (95% CI, 2.62-2.64), respectively. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism in urban children was 3.16%, 1.06% and 0.16%, respectively. In rural children, the prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism was 1.45%, 0.39% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of amblyopia was 0.8% in urban and 0.2% in rural children. Thirteen to 15 years old children attending urban schools were most likely to have uncorrected myopia. Conclusion: The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, especially myopia, was higher in urban children. Causes of higher prevalence and barriers to refractive error correction services should be identified and addressed. Eye screening of school children is recommended. However, the approach used may be different for urban and rural school children.
  9,239 1,110 13
REVIEW ARTICLES
Update on sympathetic Ophthalmia
J Fernando Arevalo, Reinaldo A Garcia, Hassan A Al-Dhibi, Juan G Sanchez, Luis Suarez-Tata
January-March 2012, 19(1):13-21
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.92111  PMID:22346110
Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) is a bilateral diffuse granulomatous intraocular inflammation that occurs in most cases within days or months after surgery or penetrating trauma to one eye. The incidence of SO ranges from 0.2 to 0.5% after penetrating ocular injuries and 0.01% after intraocular surgery. Vitreoretinal surgery and cyclodestructive procedures are considered risk factors. The time from ocular injury to onset of SO varies greatly, ranging from a few days to decades, with 80% of the cases occurring within 3 months after injury to the exciting eye and 90% within 1 year. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings rather than on serological testing or pathological studies. It presents as a bilateral diffuse uveitis. Patients report an insidious onset of blurry vision, pain, epiphora, and photophobia in the sympathizing, non-injured eye. Classically this is accompanied by conjunctival injection and a granulomatous anterior chamber reaction with mutton-fat keratic precipitates (KPs) on the corneal endothelium. In the posterior segment, the extent of inflammation can vary. Systemic corticosteroids are the first line therapy for SO. If patients are non-responsive to steroid therapy or have clinically significant side effects, cyclosporine, azathioprine or other immunosuppressive agents can be used for long-term immunomodulatory therapy.
  9,553 576 8
SYMPOSIUM-GLAUCOMA IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Epidemiology of glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, incidence and risk factors
Fatima Kyari, Mohammed M Abdull, Andrew Bastawrous, Clare E Gilbert, Hannah Faal
April-June 2013, 20(2):111-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.110605  PMID:23741130
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Results: Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Conclusion: Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma.
  8,748 619 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Inner and outer retinal volumetric and morphologic analysis of the macula with spectral domain optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa
Saumil S Sheth, Ryan B Rush, Sundaram Natarajan
April-June 2012, 19(2):227-230
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.95258  PMID:22623864
Purpose: To use spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess the features of the inner and outer layers of the macula in subjects with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Design: Prospective observational comparative study. Materials and Methods: Subjects with RP with reduced central visual acuity and central macular thinning (RP group) underwent spectral domain OCT evaluation along with age-matched healthy control subjects (control group). Using the E-MM5 raster protocol, a 5 × 5 mm central macular cut was acquired with inner and outer macular volumes serving as the primary outcome measures. A structural analysis of the inner and outer retinal layers at the macula in the RP group was also performed using the HD cross-line protocol. Results: The RP group comprised six eyes of six RP subjects and control group comprised six eyes of six control subjects. The outer macular volume was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the RP group (2.01±0.44 mm [3] ) compared to the control group (4.68±0.16 mm [3] ). There was no difference in the mean inner macular volume between the RP group (2.46±0.24 mm [3] ) and the control group (2.55±0.22 mm [3] ). No significant structural alteration was noted in the inner retinal layers of the RP group. There was no significant correlation (r = -0.04, P>0.05) between best-corrected visual acuity and outer macular volume in the RP group. Conclusions: Spectral domain OCT findings confirm that RP preferentially affects the outer retinal layers in the macula. Although the number of patients included in this study was small, it demonstrated relatively well-preserved volume and morphology of the inner retinal layers using spectral domain OCT.
  8,899 161 2
SYMPOSIUM - OCULAR THERAPEUTICS OF THE FUTURE
Presentation, diagnosis and management of limbal stem cell deficiency
Kunjal Sejpal, Pejman Bakhtiari, Sophie X Deng
January-March 2013, 20(1):5-10
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.106381  PMID:23580847
The human corneal surface epithelium is continuously repopulated by the limbal stem cells (LSCs). Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD) can lead to corneal opacity and vascularization, with consequent visual impairment or blindness. Many acquired and congenital diseases can lead to LCSD by direct injury to the LSCs, destruction of LSC niche, or both. Based on the severity of the disease, LSCD can present with various symptoms and signs. Although LSCD can be detected clinically, laboratory tests are necessary to confirm the diagnosis and monitor the disease progression. This article concisely reviews the clinical presentation, techniques for diagnosis and management of LSCD.
  7,848 479 19
SYMPOSIUM - UVEITIS UPDATE
Differential diagnosis of retinal vasculitis
Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar, Carl P Herbort, Khalid F Tabbara
October-December 2009, 16(4):202-218
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.58423  PMID:20404987
Retinal vaculitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory eye condition that involves the retinal vessels. Detection of retinal vasculitis is made clinically, and confirmed with the help of fundus fluorescein angiography. Active vascular disease is characterized by exudates around retinal vessels resulting in white sheathing or cuffing of the affected vessels. In this review, a practical approach to the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis is discussed based on ophthalmoscopic and fundus fluorescein angiographic findings.
  7,175 1,029 -
SYMPOSIUM - ONCOLOGY UPDATE
Vascular tumors of the retina and choroid: Diagnosis and treatment
Mary E Turell, Arun D Singh
July-September 2010, 17(3):191-200
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.65486  PMID:20844673
The vascular tumors of the retina and choroid comprise a diverse group of congenital and acquired lesions. The major vascular tumors of the retina include retinal capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma of the retina, retinal vasoproliferative tumor, and racemose hemangiomatosis of the retina or Wyburn-Mason syndrome. Choroidal vascular tumors include circumscribed choroidal hemangioma and diffuse choroidal hemangioma. While classified as benign, visual symptoms secondary to exudative retinal detachment and a variety of other mechanisms are common and are a major source of long-term visual disability. While many therapeutic modalities exist, treatment of symptomatic cases can be challenging. Of particular importance, many of the vascular tumors of the retina and choroid have significant associations with systemic disease. As ocular symptoms are often the most common presenting disease manifestation, the ophthalmologist plays an important role in accurate and early diagnosis. The ability to initiate prompt screening and treatment in appropriate cases is critical. In the following article, the key clinical and diagnostic features of the major retinal and choroidal vascular tumors, their systemic associations, and the literature pertaining to the most currently available treatment strategies are reviewed.
  7,413 530 9
CORNEA/REFRACTIVE UPDATE
Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty: Indications, surgical techniques and complications
Farid Karimian, Sepehr Feizi
January-March 2010, 17(1):28-37
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.61214  PMID:20543934
The concept of lamellar keratoplasty (LK) is not new. However, it had been abandoned and largely replaced by the time-honored technique of penetrating keratoplasty (PK) because LK is technically demanding, time consuming and gives suboptimal visual outcomes due to interface irregularity arising from manual lamellar dissection. Recent improvements in surgical instruments and introduction of new techniques of maximum depth of corneal dissection as well as inherent advantages such as preservation of globe integrity and elimination of endothelial graft rejection have resulted in a re-introduction of LK as an acceptable alternative to con ventional PK. This review article describes the indications, different techniques, clinical outcomes and complications o f deep anterior LK.
  7,111 704 -
CASE REPORTS
Progressive posterior lenticonus in a patient with alport syndrome
Ammar M Al-Mahmood, Samar A Al-Swailem, Abdulrahman Al-Khalaf, Ghada Y Al-Binali
October-December 2010, 17(4):379-381
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.71591  PMID:21180444
We report a rare case of Alport syndrome with progressive posterior lenticonus. A 24-year-old male presented to our tertiary eye care center with history of poor vision. At initial presentation, the patient had bilateral anterior lenticonus, posterior subcapsular cataract, and renal failure. The patient was diagnosed with Alport syndrome based on a positive family history of the disease and clinical findings. Further examination revealed progressive posterior lenticonus that was not present initially. The presence of such finding is important because it influences the surgical approach to avoid complications during cataract surgery.
  7,667 141 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Adalimumab (Humira TM ) in ophthalmology: A review of the literature
Piergiorgio Neri, Marta Lettieri, Cinzia Fortuna, Manuela Zucchi, Mara Manoni, Silvia Celani, Alfonso Giovannini
October-December 2010, 17(4):290-296
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.71588  PMID:21180427
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine which plays a primary role in the induction of inflammation in autoimmune diseases. The newest anti-TNF-α agent is adalimumab (Humira, Abbott Pharmaceutical Inc.), a human-derived antibody. This review summarizes the characteristics of adalimumab, highlighting its clinical use in systemic and ocular inflammatory disorders, and the possible therapeutic strategies. Adalimumab has been successfully used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis arthritis. More recently, adalimumab has shown promising qualities in controlling intraocular inflammations, even though this has been used prevalently as a rescue therapy for unresponsive cases. This biologic agent was also used in pediatric cases, showing a good safety and efficacy profile. Albeit no direct comparison with other biologics has been done, and adalimumab seems to be equivalent to the other anti-TNF-α, the switching to adalimumab can offer a better uveitic control. Adalimumab is a promising drug for the treatment of uveitis, even though further studies are needed on its application as a primary therapy in uveitis.
  7,133 365 1
Diabetic retinopathy and inflammation: Novel therapeutic targets
Sampathkumar Rangasamy, Paul G McGuire, Arup Das
January-March 2012, 19(1):52-59
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.92116  PMID:22346115
Most anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies in diabetic macular edema are not as robust as in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Although the VEGF appears to be a good target in diabetic macular edema, the anti-VEGF therapies appear to be of transient benefit as the edema recurs within a few weeks, and repeated injections are necessary. There is new evidence that indicates 'retinal inflammation' as an important player in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. There are common sets of inflammatory cytokines that are upregulated in both the serum and vitreous and aqueous samples, in subjects with diabetic retinopathy, and these cytokines can have multiple interactions to impact the pathogenesis of the disease. The key inflammatory events involved in the blood retinal barrier (BRB) alteration appear to be: (1) Increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules such as ICAM1, VCAM1, PECAM-1, and P-selectin, (2) adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium, (3) release of inflammatory chemokines, cytokines, and vascular permeability factors, (4) alteration of adherens and tight junctional proteins between the endothelial cells, and (5) infiltration of leukocytes into the neuro-retina, resulting in the alteration of the blood retinal barrier (diapedesis). VEGF inhibition itself may not achieve neutralization of other inflammatory molecules involved in the inflammatory cascade of the breakdown of the BRB. It is possible that the novel selective inhibitors of the inflammatory cascade (like angiopoietin-2, TNFα, and chemokines) may be useful therapeutic agents in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), either alone or in combination with the anti-VEGF drugs.
  6,802 567 42
REVIEW ARTICLE
Carotid cavernous fistula: Ophthalmological implications
Imtiaz A Chaudhry, Sahar M Elkhamry, Waleed Al-Rashed, Thomas M Bosley
April-June 2009, 16(2):57-63
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53862  PMID:20142962
Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. A CCF can be due to a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, or a communication between the cavernous sinus, and one or more meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery or both. These fistulas may be divided into spontaneous or traumatic in relation to cause and direct or dural in relation to angiographic findings. The dural fistulas usually have low rates of arterial blood flow and may be difficult to diagnose without angiography. Patients with CCF may initially present to an ophthalmologist with decreased vision, conjunctival chemosis, external ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Patients with CCF may have predisposing causes, which need to be elicited. Radiological features may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and determining possible intervention. Patients with any associated visual impairment or ocular conditions, such as glaucoma, need to be identified and treated. Based on patient's signs and symptoms, timely intervention is mandatory to prevent morbidity or mortality. The conventional treatments include carotid ligation and embolization, with minimal significant morbidity or mortality. Ophthalmologist may be the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of CCF, and this review article should help in understanding the clinical features of CCF, current diagnostic approach, usefulness of the available imaging modalities, possible modes of treatment and expected outcome.
  6,315 928 12
REVIEW ARTICLES
The SCHWIND AMARIS total-tech laser as an all-rounder in refractive surgery
Maria Clara Arbelaez, Samuel Arba Mosquera
January-March 2009, 16(1):46-53
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.48868  PMID:20142960
Purpose: To describe and argument an overview of the main features and unique technical points of AMARIS Total-Tech Laser, coupled with patient outcomes supporting the decision to perform LASIK treatments with maximised outcomes. Settings: Dr. M.C. Arbelaez, Muscat Eye Laser Center, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The findings collected during 18-month experience using SCHWIND AMARIS Total-Tech Laser have been reviewed to provide arguments for supporting the decision to perform LASIK treatments with maximised outcomes. For updated clinical outcomes, the last 100 myopic astigmatism treatments, the last 100 hyperopic astigmatism treatments, the last 30 ocular-wavefront-guided treatments, and the last 30 corneal-wavefront-guided treatments, all with 6-month follow-up, were included. For all those, LDV femtosecond system was used to prepare the flaps, and AMARIS flying spot system was used to perform ablations. Clinical outcomes were evaluated in terms of predictability, refractive outcome, safety, wavefront aberration, and contrast sensitivity. Results: 6-month postoperatively, mean defocus was -0.14±0.31D and astigmatism 0.25±0.37D. 70% eyes were within ±0.25D of emmetropia. 43% eyes gained lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. For Aberration-Free treatments, none of the aberration metrics changed from pre- to postoperative values in a clinically relevant amount. For ocular-wavefront-guided treatments, the surgery did not change coma or spherical aberration, and reduced trefoil (p<0.005). For corneal-wavefront-guided treatments, the trefoil, coma, and spherical aberrations, as well as the total root-mean-square values of higher order aberration, were significantly reduced (p<.05) when the pre-existing aberrations were greater than the repeatability and the biological noise. Conclusions: Although this review does not allow for evidence-based conclusions, following our strategy, LASIK results were excellent. LASIK surgery with AMARIS system yield excellent outcomes. Refractions were reduced to subclinical values with no induction of High-Order-Aberrations. Neither adverse events nor complications were observed.
  5,762 1,038 12
CORNEA/REFRACTIVE UPDATE
Keratoconus: Overview and update on treatment
Ladan Espandar, Jay Meyer
January-March 2010, 17(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.61212  PMID:20543932
Keratoconus is a non-inflammatory, progressive thinning process of the cornea. It is a relatively common disorder of unknown etiology that can involve each layer of the cornea and often leads to high myopia and astigmatism. Computer-assisted corneal topography devices are valuable diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of subclinical keratoconus and for tracking the progression of the disease. The traditional conservative management of keratoconus begins with spectacle correction and contact lenses. Several newer, more invasive, treatments are currently available, especially for contact lens-intolerant patients. Intrastromal corneal ring segments can be used to reshape the abnormal cornea to improve the topographic abnormalities and visual acuity. Phakic intraocular lenses such as iris-fixated, angle-supported, posterior chamber implantable collamer and toric lenses are additional valuable options for the correction of refractive error. Corneal cross-linking is a relatively new method of stiffening the cornea to halt the progression of the disease. The future management of keratoconus will most likely incorporate multiple treatment modalities, both simultaneous and sequential, for the prevention and treatment of this disease.
  5,738 1,047 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
The hot orbit: Orbital cellulitis
Imtiaz A Chaudhry, Waleed Al-Rashed, Yonca O Arat
January-March 2012, 19(1):34-42
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.92114  PMID:22346113
Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon condition previously associated with severe complications. If untreated, orbital cellulitis can be potentially sight and life threatening. It can affect both adults and children but has a greater tendency to occur in the pediatric age group. The infection most commonly originates from sinuses, eyelids or face, retained foreign bodies, or distant soources by hematogenous spread. It is characterized by eyelid edema, erythema, chemosis, proptosis, blurred vision, fever, headache, and double vision. A history of upper respiratory tract infection prior to the onset is very common especially in children. In the era prior to antibiotics, vision loss from orbital cellulitis was a dreaded complication. Currently, imaging studies for detection of orbital abcess, the use of antibiotics and early drainage have mitigated visual morbidity significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe current investigative strategies and management options in the treatment of orbital cellulitis, establish their effectiveness and possible complications due to late intervention.
  6,339 408 6
CORNEA/REFRACTIVE UPDATE
Intraocular lens power calculation after corneal refractive surgery
Vahid Feiz
January-March 2010, 17(1):63-68
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.61219  PMID:20543939
Cataract surgery after corneal refractive surgery can be challenging for the ocular surgeon due to the difficulty with accurate intraocular lens (IOL) power determination and unexpected refractive surprises. As clinicians have done more work, a number of error sources have been determined. Furthermore, an increasing number of methods to avoid these refractive surprises have been proposed. The combination of this work has resulted in recommendations for the modification of standard IOL power calculations to improve outcomes. The following article includes a brief on, and by no means, inclusive, error sources and ways to compensate for them.
  6,110 459 -
Corneal collagen cross-linking
Mirko R Jankov II, Vesna Jovanovic, Ljubisa Nikolic, Jonathan C Lake, Georgos Kymionis, Efekan Coskunseven
January-March 2010, 17(1):21-27
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.61213  PMID:20543933
Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA) is a new technique of corneal tissue strengthening by using riboflavin as a photosensitizer and UVA to increase the formation of intra- and interfibrillar covalent bonds by photosensitized oxidation. Keratocyte apoptosis in the anterior segment of the corneal stroma all the way down to a depth of about 300 microns has been described and a demarcation line between the treated and untreated cornea has been clearly shown. It is important to ensure that the cytotoxic threshold for the endothelium has not been exceeded by strictly respecting the minimal corneal thickness. Confocal microscopy studies show that repopulation of keratocytes is already visible 1 month after the treatment, reaching its pre-operative quantity and quality in terms of functional morphology within 6 months after the treatment. The major indication for the use of CXL is to inhibit the progression of corneal ectasias, such as keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration. CXL may also be effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of iatrogenic keratectasia, resulting from excessively aggressive photoablation. This treatment has also been used to treat infectious corneal ulcers with apparent favorable results. Combination with other treatments, such as intracorneal ring segment implantation, limited topography-guided photoablation and conductive keratoplasty have been used with different levels of success.
  5,922 602 -
CASE REPORTS
Malignant nodular hidradenoma of the eyelid: A rare sweat gland tumor
Abdulla Al Baghli, Suresh S Reddy, Maragaret A Reddy
October-December 2010, 17(4):374-376
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.71595  PMID:21180442
We report a case of malignant nodular hidradenoma in a middle-aged man, who presented with a nodular swelling in the eyelid. The tumor was similar to its benign counterpart but had additional features such as surface ulceration, numerous mitiotic figures, and an infiltrative growth pattern. Malignant forms of hidradenomas are unusual and the possibility this variant should be considered in the differential diagnosis of eyelid tumors.
  6,331 157 -
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