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Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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   2009| April-June  | Volume 16 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 17, 2009

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Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and other eye problems among urban and rural school children
Amruta S Padhye, Rajiv Khandekar, Sheetal Dharmadhikari, Kuldeep Dole, Parikshit Gogate, Madan Deshpande
April-June 2009, 16(2):69-74
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53864  PMID:20142964
Background: Uncorrected refractive error is an avoidable cause of visual impairment. Aim: To compare the magnitude and determinants of uncorrected refractive error, such as age, sex, family history of refractive error and use of spectacles among school children 6-15 years old in urban and rural Maharashtra, India. Study Design: This was a review of school-based vision screening conducted in 2004-2005. Materials and Methods: Optometrists assessed visual acuity, amblyopia and strabismus in rural children. Teachers assessed visual acuity and then optometrists confirmed their findings in urban schools. Ophthalmologists screened for ocular pathology. Data of uncorrected refractive error, amblyopia, strabismus and blinding eye diseases was analyzed to compare the prevalence and risk factors among children of rural and urban areas. Results: We examined 5,021 children of 8 urban clusters and 7,401 children of 28 rural clusters. The cluster-weighted prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban and rural children was 5.46% (95% CI, 5.44-5.48) and 2.63% (95% CI, 2.62-2.64), respectively. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism in urban children was 3.16%, 1.06% and 0.16%, respectively. In rural children, the prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism was 1.45%, 0.39% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of amblyopia was 0.8% in urban and 0.2% in rural children. Thirteen to 15 years old children attending urban schools were most likely to have uncorrected myopia. Conclusion: The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, especially myopia, was higher in urban children. Causes of higher prevalence and barriers to refractive error correction services should be identified and addressed. Eye screening of school children is recommended. However, the approach used may be different for urban and rural school children.
  13,613 1,344 13
Carotid cavernous fistula: Ophthalmological implications
Imtiaz A Chaudhry, Sahar M Elkhamry, Waleed Al-Rashed, Thomas M Bosley
April-June 2009, 16(2):57-63
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53862  PMID:20142962
Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. A CCF can be due to a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, or a communication between the cavernous sinus, and one or more meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery or both. These fistulas may be divided into spontaneous or traumatic in relation to cause and direct or dural in relation to angiographic findings. The dural fistulas usually have low rates of arterial blood flow and may be difficult to diagnose without angiography. Patients with CCF may initially present to an ophthalmologist with decreased vision, conjunctival chemosis, external ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Patients with CCF may have predisposing causes, which need to be elicited. Radiological features may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and determining possible intervention. Patients with any associated visual impairment or ocular conditions, such as glaucoma, need to be identified and treated. Based on patient's signs and symptoms, timely intervention is mandatory to prevent morbidity or mortality. The conventional treatments include carotid ligation and embolization, with minimal significant morbidity or mortality. Ophthalmologist may be the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of CCF, and this review article should help in understanding the clinical features of CCF, current diagnostic approach, usefulness of the available imaging modalities, possible modes of treatment and expected outcome.
  10,069 1,118 12
Traditional medicine in Oman: Its role in ophthalmology
Radha Shenoy, Alexander Bialasiewicz, Rajiv Khandekar, Badar Al Barwani, Habiba Al Belushi
April-June 2009, 16(2):92-96
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53869  PMID:20142969
Aim: To present three patients with ocular disease who developed a range of complications following use of traditional medications. Settings and Design: Case series Methods: Three patients who were examined in the Ophthalmic department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Sultanate of Oman between 2003 and 2004, seeking care following use of traditional medicines and or healing practices for various ophthalmic problems described below. Results: The first patient was a computer professional with a chalazion; the patient used a plant extract from 'Calotropis procera' as a part of the treatment. He developed corneal edema with decrease in vision in his left eye following application of the plant extract. Treatment with topical steroids and antibiotics resulted in a complete clinical and visual recovery. The second patient developed a fungal corneal ulcer (dermatophyte - Trichophyton mentagrophyte) after sustaining injury with an animal tail to the right eye and used honey for pain relief prior to presentation. She responded poorly to anti-fungal treatment, underwent a penetrating keratoplasty with recurrence of infection in the graft that resulted in a vascularized corneal scar. The third patient was a five-year-old child who was treated with 'wasam' on the occiput for intraocular inflammation following bilateral uncomplicated cataract extraction. Following this treatment the topical steroid was discontinued. The "Wasam" treatment indirectly resulted in exacerbation of the intraocular inflammation and secondary glaucoma and poor vision as well as 'Wasam ulcers' on the occiput. Despite treatment of the intraocular inflammation, the visual outcome was poor. Conclusion: Traditional medicine in Oman is sought by many for variable reasons. Lack of evidence-based scientific data on its safety or efficacy does not deter the Omanis from flocking the traditional healers. However, when applied in the treatment of ocular diseases, traditional medicine and healing practices seem to cause more harm than benefit for the patient.
  6,194 454 2
Assessment and management of children with visual impairment
Taha A Labib, Mohamed A El Sada, Boshra Mohamed, Neveen M Sabra, Hanan M Abdel Aleem
April-June 2009, 16(2):64-68
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53863  PMID:20142963
Purpose: The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of low vision aids in improving visual performance and response in children with low vision. Study Design: Prospective clinical case series. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 50 patients that met the international criteria for a diagnosis of low vision. Their ages ranged from 5 to 15 years. Assessment of low vision included distance and near visual acuity assessment, color vision and contrast sensitivity function. Low vision aids were prescribed based on initial evaluation and the patient's visual needs. Patients were followed up for 1 year using the tests done at the initial examination and a visual function assessment questionnaire. Results: The duration of visual impairment ranged from 1 to 10 years, with mean duration SD being 4.6 2.3299. The near visual acuities ranged from A10 to A20, with mean near acuity SD being A13.632 3.17171. Far visual acuities ranged from 6/60 (0.06) to 6/24 (0.25), with mean far visual acuity SD being 0.122 0.1191. All patients had impaired contrast sensitivity function as tested using the vision contrast testing system (VCTS) chart for all spatial frequencies. Distance and near vision aids were prescribed according to the visual acuity and the visual needs of every patient. All patients in the age group 5-7 years could be integrated in mainstream schools. The remaining patients that were already integrated in schools demonstrated greater independency regarding reading books and copying from blackboards. Conclusion: Our study confirmed that low vision aids could play an effective role in minimizing the impact of low vision and improving the visual performance of children with low vision, leading to maximizing their social and educational integration.
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Cataract surgical outcomes in diabetic patients: Case control study
Oluwatoyin H Onakpoya, Charles O Bekibele, Stella A Adegbehingbe
April-June 2009, 16(2):88-91
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53868  PMID:20142968
Purpose: To determine the visual outcome of cataract surgery in diabetes mellitus with advanced cataract in a tertiary institution in Nigeria. Design: A retrospective case control study conducted at the University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria. Subjects: Twenty three consecutive patients with diabetes and 23 age and sex matched non-diabetic control patients who had extracapsular cataract extraction for advanced cataract between 2002-2005. Main outcome: Mean post operative visual acuity and surgical complications. Results: Twenty three patients with diabetes mellitus and 23 non diabetic controls were studied; mean duration of diabetes was 8.1 7.2 years. The mean post operative visual acuity in diabetics was 0.110.38, 0.330.57 and 0.380.49 at one week, two months and six months compared with 0.230.19, 0.460.37 and 0.480.31 in non diabetics. (p=0.207, 0.403 and 0.465 respectively). Improvement in preoperative visual acuity was noted in 84.2% and 90% in diabetics and non-diabetics respectively. Poor visual outcome in diabetics was mainly due to diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy or diabetes related surgical complications. Conclusion: Visual improvement was seen following surgery for advanced cataract in diabetics in this study population. Post operative monitoring for treatment of diabetic retinopathy may enhance visual outcome.
  5,943 680 1
Prevalence of punctal stenosis among ophthalmology patients
Amal Bukhari
April-June 2009, 16(2):85-87
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53867  PMID:20142967
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of punctal stenosis among patients visiting the general ophthalmology clinic for routine checkup. Design: Prospective, observational case series. Materials and Methods: A total of 682 patients were evaluated for evidence of punctal stenosis from May to November 2008. Any associated findings from clinical examination were recorded. Results: As many as 54.3% (370/682) of the candidates had punctal stenosis. The prevalence is associated significantly with increasing age (p=.001), and no gender predilection was found. It was due to chronic blepharitis in 97% (359/370), entropion in 1.4% (5/370) and unknown causes in 1.6% (6/370) of the patients. As many as 58.1% (215/370) did not have subjective or objective evidence of epiphora, and all of them had a tear film breakup time of less than 10 seconds and positive corneal fluorescein staining. Conclusion: Punctal stenosis is a common finding among patients presenting for routine eye checkup. It increases with advancing age, and the most common predisposing factor is chronic blepharitis. A significant number of patients can be asymptomatic as they have concurrent dry eye disease. Surgical intervention is not recommended unless the patient is symptomatic after treating any associated blepharitis and dry eye disease.
  5,412 390 4
Intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) as an adjuvant treatment in cases of neovascular glaucoma
Asaad A Ghanem, Amr M El- Kannishy, Ahmed S El- Wehidy, Amira F El-Agamy
April-June 2009, 16(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53865  PMID:20142965
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) injection in cases of neovascular glaucoma. Study Design: Clinical case series. Materials and Methods: Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with rubeosis iridis and secondary glaucoma were administered intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (2.5 mg). The patients were followed for 2 months. Results: We noted partial or complete regression of iris neovascularization 1 week after injection of bevacizumab. Reproliferation of new vessels was detected in 25% of the cases after 2 months. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) before injection was 28 9.3 mm Hg under topical β-blocker and systemic acetazolamide. One week after injection, the IOP decreased to 21.7 11.5 mm Hg (5 cases without anti-glaucoma drugs, 6 cases with topical β-blocker and 5 cases with both topical β-blocker and systemic acetazolamide). Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) injection leads to regression of iris neovascularization with subsequent drop of IOP in eyes with neovascular glaucoma.
  4,700 446 3
Late occurrence of lens particle glaucoma due to an occult glass intralenticular foreign body
Nadia A Hassan, Margaret A Reddy, Suresh S Reddy
April-June 2009, 16(2):97-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53870  PMID:20142970
We report a case of traumatic mature cataract with a late occurrence of lens particle glaucoma after 11 years of trauma due to a presence of an occult intralenticular glass foreign body which was detected accidentally during the cataract surgery.
  3,278 300 -
Presenting visual acuities in a referral eye center in an oil-producing area of Nigeria
Joseph M Waziri-Erameh, Afekhide E Omoti
April-June 2009, 16(2):80-84
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53866  PMID:20142966
Objectives: To determine the pattern of presenting visual acuities at an eye center in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Study Design: Retrospective chart review Methods: A retrospective review of patient records attending a private referral eye center providing services for company patients and the general public in the region. Information was obtained from computerized medical records of 6533 patients who attended the center for various eye concerns in a 5-year period (January 1998 to December 2002). Results: A total of 6533 patients were seen in this 5-year period of which 2472 (37.8%) were company patients and 4061 (62.2%). were private patients. There were 3879 males (59.4%) and 2654 females (40.6%). A visual acuity of 6/6 or better was seen in 50.8% of the patients. In 76.6% of patients, a visual acuity of 6/18 or better was recorded. There were 21.4% of patients in the low vision group. Bilateral blindness occurred in 2.1% of patients. Monocular blindness occurred in 3.7% of patients. Low vision occurred in 16.9% of company patients and 24.1% of private patients. Bilateral blindness occurred in 0.9% of company patients and 2.7% of private patients, while monocular blindness occurred in 1.2% of company patients and 5.2% of private patients. The main ocular problems were refractive error, glaucoma, conjunctivitis, headaches, ocular trauma, retina and related pathologies, cataract, uveitis, pterygium and corneal problems. Conclusion: The incidence of low vision and blindness is high in the oil-producing area of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Low vision and blindness were more common in private patients than in company patients.
  3,158 205 -
The importance of structured scientific enquiry: A priority for the MEAJO editorial board
Rajiv Khandekar
April-June 2009, 16(2):55-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.53861  PMID:20142961
  2,738 266 -